OPERATION GLADIO - GLOBAL SUBVERSION (Part 1)
We describe Operation Gladio in various countries, from its illegal inception in 1945, and its evolution from stay-behind armies meant to resist a Soviet invasion of Western European countries to its bloody interference in the internal affairs of European and non-European countries on the pretext of countering Communist influence in these nations. Terrorism carried out by Gladio units in several European and non-European countries is described. Subversion in some countries, taken as illustrative examples, is dealt with in some detail. This was Gladio in the pre 9/11 period where its goal was to influence the internal politics of countries in such a manner as to prevent Socialists and Communists from being elected to power or to eliminate leadership that was either neutral in the Cold War or critical of U.S. foreign policy (Part I).
In Part II we deal with the post 9/11 period. In the post 9/11 phase Gladio operations have become worldwide. The war against Communism has morphed into Global War Against Terrorism (GWOT). Terrorism is being carried out under Gladio cover, and is being used as a pretext for “humanitarian” interventions i.e. conquests and redrawing of national boundaries with the object of maximizing sustained plunder of vital resources all over the globe. Terrorism is also being used to take away hard won civil liberties in the West, to destroy resource rich Islamic countries, discredit Islam, and above all to weaken, and, if possible, dismantle Russia and China. Terrorist organizations worldwide have been created, trained, nourished, sustained and guided by the American and British dominated NATO agencies. US and British controlled NATO is steering global terrorism to advance the agenda of the international bankers – a One World Government, global slave state, under their control.
CONTENTS of PART I
It is not something taught in history textbooks, or mentioned in the “mainstream” media, that the masonic international bankers were behind the much touted Russian Revolution. It is a deliberately suppressed but undeniable fact, that these bankers had provided massive funding to trained “International Jews” (to use Churchill’s phrase ) to subvert Russia and to impose upon the people of Russia the so called Bolshevik Revolution . The Politburo, with around 75% “International Jews” as its members , was completely controlled by the international bankers, who then set up a contrived Communist-Capitalist dichotomy to maintain mankind in a state of perpetual tension and war. Both world wars were planned and instigated by the masonic international bankers and their allies, all of whom were also ardent Zionists. The role of the international bankers in planning, instigating and deliberately prolonging both world wars is also not mentioned in history textbooks taught all over the world (see however [4-8]).
At the end of World War II a most secret and new development took place. The CIA had not yet been set up, but OSS, the Office of Strategic Services, established on the “advice” of the British during World War II, was in place. Allen Dulles, subsequently to head the CIA, entered into a strange agreement with the Nazi General Reinhardt Gehlen, head of the German military intelligence . Dulles was a 33rd degree Freemason , and was very deeply tied to the masonic international bankers. An ardent anti-Communist, Gen. Gehlen had set up secret army units, whose members were known as werewolves. These werewolves were to act as normal citizens during the daytime and become communist killers at night. Soon after the Yalta agreement, Gehlen was transported to Fort Hunt, Virginia, where he was “wined and dined” by the Rothschild agent General Donovan, head of the OSS, who was responsible for the assassination of General Patton .
At Fort Hunt it was agreed that Gen. Gehlen would return to Germany under U.S. military protection and would reorganize his werewolves. It was also agreed that they would no longer be called werewolves but would be called gladiators. This was a covert operation that was decided upon by a few individuals loyal to the international bankers, and embedded in the U.S. military and espionage hierarchy. The operation had no approval whatsoever from either the Congress or the Pentagon. Who had given these people the authority to act the way they did? Very few people in the U.S. government knew of it. The media was unaware of it as were the people of the U.S. and Europe at large.
Since the operation, that came to be known as Operation Gladio, had no formal approval from the constitutionally set up bodies or authorities, the question arose as to where the funding would come from. Astonishingly the initial funding of $200 million came from the Rockefeller and Mellon Foundations ! At that time $200 million was a huge amount. That the money came from the masonic international banking families, who owned these Foundations, shows that Dulles and Donovan were working on the direction of these families. The bankers were not giving away these two hundred million dollars for charity! The money was being given for promoting strife and bloodshed so that their New World Order agenda could be advanced further. Subsequent funding came to be managed through other means, drug trafficking in particular. Astonishingly the masonic international bankers had imposed Communist rule upon Russia and the very same families were now funding a covert, illegal operation, aimed at countering Communism! Rockefellers and the Schiffs, apart from President Wilson, a stooge of the bankers, provided tens of millions of dollars to the Bolsheviks to destroy the Russian empire, to subvert it, and to impose “International Jews” upon the Russian people under the name Bolsheviks [see ref. 2]. The Bolsheviks were to set up concentration camps and to create an environment of terror in which tens of millions of Christians were to die in the most wretched and painful circumstances.
Gladio was to expand into all western European countries as well as Turkey and South America, and was to undergo a strange transformation. The ostensible purpose, when it was set up, was to offer resistance to the Russian armies, in case they invaded Western Europe. However Gladio units throughout Europe became an organ of subversion in NATO countries, including Turkey, on the pretext of containing communist influence. Every NATO country had a secret stay behind army composed of different secret units. These units were employed to murder select people, carry out false flag sabotage activities, instigate coups if needed, and to assassinate high level politicians, including prime ministers, ex- prime ministers, possible prime ministers, etc., who stood in the way of policy targets designed by the CIA and a secret and elect group of U.S. Army officers. The dark name of General Lemnitzer is the most important in this regard, as far as the U.S. Army is concerned. Lemnitzer was removed as Joint Chiefs of Staff by JFK and sent to Europe. Lemnitzer is buried in Arlington cemetery as an American hero! He possibly had a hand in the assassination of JFK along with several CIA stalwarts. In different countries the Gladio units carried different names. In Sweden the secret army was known as Sveaberg, in Austria the unit carried the codename Osterreichisicher Wander-Sport-und Geselligkeitsverein (Austrian Hiking, Sports and Society Club), while in Germany it was the Technischer Dienst des Bundes Deitscher Jugend (TD-BD, the Technical Branch of the League of German Youth). In Greece the Gladio outfit had the codename Sheepskin, while its Turkish counterpart was christened Counter-Guerilla. The Italian units carried the name Gladio.
It is ironic that soon after they were set up, Gladio units in certain countries, particularly, France, Austria, Germany and Sweden, did come to the knowledge of the authorities. Yet not much could be done to punish them  except in Finland where the leadership dismantled Gladio as early as 1945 . A couple of years after WW II, the French authorities found out about Gladio units in France. In June 1947 the Socialist French Minister of Interior Edouard Depreux announced at a press conference that the French authorities had discovered secret right wing resistance units which had planned an Operation Bleu, an attack that would have taken place in July or August 1947. The units were dismantled but a year later they were again in place.
In Austria secret Nazi and right wing units were discovered in 1947. They had in their possession sophisticated weapons including rocket artillery. They were prosecuted but during trail their two leaders claimed to be defenders of the country! The two leaders were sentenced to death in 1949 for treason but, after serving for a short time, came out, and were pardoned by the Austrian Chancellor! No reason or explanation of this astounding decision was given. Deep, dark and very powerful forces were at work to protect such elements at all costs. The two leaders of the secret resistance also claimed during the trial that they were funded by the CIA.
In Germany a man named Hans Otto walked into a Frankfurt police station in 1952 and straightaway announced that he was part of a secret resistance that had been trained to blow bridges in case of Soviet invasion. He also revealed that his organization had received millions from the CIA and that the resistance had been organized by Gen. Gehlen, who himself was hiding in the Vatican! These revelations so alarmed August Zinn, the Prime Minister of Hesse, that he had all one hundred members of the organization arrested. He requested a full scale inquiry into the activities of the organization Technischer Dienst des Bundes Deitscher Jugend (TD-BD, the Technical Branch of the League of German Youth). Chancellor Kurt Adenauer tried to persuade Zinn from exposing the Gladio units. The American ambassador insulted Zinn, who however refused to budge. Finally, on instructions from the highest authorities, the German High Court in Karlsruhe denied Zinn’s request for a full scale investigation. The arrested members of TD-BD were released on the orders of the High Court! No reasons for the release were given, forcing the Prime Minister to bitterly remark: “The only legal explanation for these releases can be that the people of Karlsruhe declared they acted upon American direction.”
In 1953 the Swedish authorities arrested a former SS commander Otto Hallberg. He was charged with promoting terrorism. However during his prosecution Hallberg openly stated that he would not be punished and that his story would be suppressed because the Swedish government would not like the extent to which they were under CIA and NATO influence, to be known. His confidence was correctly placed as he was indeed released.
The above incidents clearly show that powerful hidden forces were able to compel various European governments not to touch the Gladio units despite the fact that Operation Gladio had absolutely no official sanction from any constitutionally or lawfully constituted body or authority of the United States government. There is also a hidden secret society component that influences and protects this diabolical operation. In Italy a Masonic lodge, known informally as P2, was set up to further Gladio causes and to protect the operation. A Masonic Lodge by the name Propaganda Masonica was set up in Italy in 1877. However Mussolini banned Freemasonry in 1924. This lodge was revived under the name Propaganda Masonica Due (Due is the Italian word for 2) and came to be known as P2. P2 boasted among its ranks highly influential people including leading politicians, generals, members of the superior judiciary, media personalities, etc. For instance the future Prime Ministers of Italy Giulio Andreotti and Silvio Berlusconi were members of P2. Even a future President of Argentina Raul Alberto Lastiri, was a P2 member .
By 1955 a Catholic Gladio had come into existence. Priests and bishops were trained for actual military combat! Three clerics led this secret army of priests and bishops. They were Augustin Bea, rector of the Pontifical Biblical Institute, Gostino Casaroli, his Privy Chamberlain, and Fiorenzo Angelini, Master of Pontifical Ceremonies. This was a most disturbing phenomenon. Catholic Gladio was funded by the CIA! The Vatican was very much aware of these developments and backed them . In fact the murderer of Gen. Patton, Gen. “Wild” Bill Donovan, was decorated by the Vatican in 1945. Pope Pius XII conferred upon him the Grand Cross of Order of St. Sylvester, one of the most prestigious of the papal knighthoods. This honor was conferred upon him after Donovan had discussed Operation Gladio with the Pope and informed him that it was meant to counter the Red Menace! Despite the fact that Christianity bans usury and despite the fact that the Vatican had declared Freemasonry a sacrilege, the Vatican went into banking, its banks and shell companies receiving a substantial portion of their income from drug money, while at the same time some masonic elements were allowed, or penetrated deeply, into the Vatican hierarchy. Paul L. Williams has provided a list of some highly prominent Catholic Masons, including those who held important offices in the Vatican (pp 64, 65 of ref. 9)! It is therefore quite clear that the Vatican has been penetrated by freemasons, and it is highly likely that they exert a degree of influence on the choice of papal candidates and other decisions in the Vatican.
After the initial grant of $200 million from the Rockefeller and Mellin Foundations, those who were responsible for setting up this operation in the USA, in particular the rogue elements in the OSS and then in the CIA, discovered that they could fund their covert activities through drug trafficking. This required the involvement of the Mafia too. Therefore the infamous Charles “Lucky” Luciano, the Mafia boss, who was serving a sentence of 50 years of hard time at the Clinton Correctional Facility in New York State, was contacted by the Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI), which promised to secure his release and repatriation to Sicily, from where he came, in return for working for the ONI . A Mafia thug thus became an ONI agent and through unprecedented legal procedures his release was secured! In Sicily “Lucky” Luciano would be able to bring the Sicilian Mafia under ONI influence. He returned to Sicily in 1946 and was accorded a hero’s welcome! In 1947 the relationship between the CIA (which had just been set up) and the Mafia was formalized in the sense that terms of the working relationship were settled. This related particularly to the financial aspects of the narcotics traffic. The CIA dumped a good deal of its black money in the Vatican bank, among others! This money was to be used to influence the outcome of elections, by repressing leftwing parties, terrorizing them through gladiators, and influencing the press, etc. In 1948, for instance CIA moved $65 million into the Vatican bank . A year earlier the U.S. government had placed $350 million in the Vatican Bank for economic relief and political payments!
The idea of using drug money to fund covert activities was the brain child of Col. Paul E. Helliwell , who had borrowed it from the Koumintang during his tenure as Chief of OSS in China. All the diabolical characters like Dulles, Donovan, James Jesus Angleton, Frank Wisner, and others, decided to adopt this strategy. It was decided that the cold cash thus obtained would enable them to carry out subversive activities without approval of any constitutional body or authority of the U.S. government. The dark characters agreed to generate a drug epidemic among the lower strata of society, in particular the black community. Very soon the CIA found that it needed more sources of heroin and new routes because the Sicilian Mafia could not meet the demands. The CIA and the military found new places for growing poppy and established new routes. The Corsican Mafia was also enlisted by the CIA in support of drug trafficking after they used it to break the workers unions in the seaports and dockyards, which refused to offload goods from American vessels as a protest against the Vietnam war. Marseilles became a new hub of the narcotic industry. The South-East Asian route and the Turkish route were developed for heroin smuggling.
In his outstanding book on Gladio the investigative journalist Richard Cottrell, who for ten years was also a member of the European Parliament, has pointed out that a Strategy of Tension was the basis of the false flag operations of .the stay-behind units. He quotes the terrible French Fascist Captain Yves Guerin-Serac, who advocated the breakdown of the state ostensibly for preventing communist takeover through elections :
Two forms of terrorism can provoke such a situation [breakdown of state]: blind terrorism (committing massacres indiscriminately which cause a large number of victims), and selective terrorism (eliminate chosen persons) . . .
This destruction of the state must be carried out under the cover of “communist activities.” Popular opinion must be polarized … that we are the only instrument capable of salvation.
Cottrell astutely observes that there was no will in any European country for a communist takeover and correctly concludes: “His real target was the western liberal and tolerant model of democracy.” This however is the agenda of the international bankers who control western governments and intelligence agencies through control of their money line. These masonic Zionist international bankers want to set up a global slave state euphemistically called the New World Order. To understand this one may recall what Eustace Mullins wrote, quoting remarks from McMaster written in the Reaper almost a century ago :
The World Order has no religious, political or economic program except World Slavery. Only by subduing all potential opposition can the parasite guarantee his position of lodging on the host. The World Order sets up countless groups to promote any type of idea, and then sets up other groups to fanatically oppose them, but the masters have no dedication to anything except slavery. As R.E. McMaster wrote in The Reaper, “The goal of international communism is not to destroy Western international debt capitalism. The goal of international communism is to enslave mankind at the behest of Western international debt capitalism." This is all you can ever know about the present world situation, and it is all you need to know.
Cottrell remarks  that the Strategy of Tension functioned at three basic levels. At the first level it was involved in guerilla street fights. “It was intended to stiffen loyalties in those countries considered at the greatest risk of falling under the sway of the Soviet Union.” At the second level it involved coups or other methods of replacing popularly elected governments and replacing them with puppets or more pliable regimes. At the third level it carried out assassinations of important people who stood in the way of achievement of NATO goals.
There is a horrific list of false flag operations and assassinations carried out under Operation Gladio. The public of the countries where these false flag operations were carried out, were given the impression, through controlled media and government statements, that these were carried out by left wing elements. After 9/11 the left wing elements were replaced by Muslim extremists to the extent that terrorism and Muslim extremism have become synonymous. Such is the power of modern governments.
Let us begin with more conspicuous false flag operations in Italy. On December 12, 1969 a bomb exploded in the crowded lobby of an agricultural bank in Piazza Fontana, Milan killing seventeen people and injuring eighty eight. The victims were mostly farmers who had come to deposit their paltry savings in the bank. On the same day, in fact within an hour, three more bombs exploded at different locations in Rome injuring fourteen. This unprecedented wave of attacks on innocent civilians was blamed on left wing elements. Eighty left wing suspects were rounded up. One of them fell from a fourth floor during interrogation and despite evidence that he had been killed deliberately the court ruled it as an accident. Another was kept in detention for three years, and, despite lack of evidence, was sentenced for the crime. It was sixteen long years later that he was released once it was found out that the terrorism was carried out under operation Gladio! The Italian police however discovered within months of the bombing that the real suspects were not left wingers but a fascist organization named Ordo Nuovo (ON, New Order). Three suspects belonging to ON were arrested, but owing to the influence of secret hands in the judiciary and the administration, all three were released. This was despite the fact that there was fairly compelling evidence to convict them . Of course later investigations, spread over almost three decades, revealed that the bombings were allegedly carried out with the involvement of a U.S. Navy captain named David Carrett, a CIA operative .
A year after the Piazza Fontana bombings a coup was planned and the attempt to topple the elected Italian government began on December 7, 1970. It was known as the Golphe Borghese (Borghese coup). Borghese was a Black Prince (the Black Nobility comprised those who sided with the Pope after the rise of Garibaldi in Italy). Junio Valerio Borghese was the commander of an Italian command unit which, after the surrender of Italy in 1943, began attacking Italian partisan bands which were backed by the Italian Communist Party (PCI). He was arrested for war crimes in 1945 but since the father of James Jesus Angleton, the OSS and subsequently CIA operative, was his friend (Angleton’s father also worked for the OSS), he came to the rescue of Borghese. However the rescue was not without a dark purpose. More than 10,000 fascists who had fought under his command were required for the secret Gladio units. Borghese was transferred under U.S. military command after his arrest and was subsequently released and made head of the Italian Gladio.
The Borghese coup was stalled at the last moment when it was revealed that the government had become aware of it and was willing to impose martial law. James Jesus Angleton arrived just before the coup was to be launched and left as soon as it was cancelled. When, in 1974, Borghese died, there was speculation that he had been poisoned since official investigations into the coup attempt had begun and many people wanted him dead. Three decades later a French journalist was able to establish that an American military attaché in Rome was involved in the murder. Astonishingly he also found that President Nixon had closely monitored the coup attempt and was kept informed of the developments.
As if all this was not enough there were numerous other sabotage activities carried out by Gladio units in Italy. On May 31, 1971 three Italian policemen were killed in an explosion near the village named Peteano when they opened the hood of a parked car at a location where an anonymous phone call had directed them. Additionally one policeman was injured. This led to the arrest of about 200 left wing activists but there was no evidence against them. In fact the discovery of an arms cache near Trieste revealed the presence of C4 explosive. This explosive was used only by the U.S. military and its appendage the NATO forces. The evidence towards U.S. involvement was now fairly obvious and the U.S. operations had to in league with the secret or deep state (to use Professor Peter Dale Scott’s terminology).
On 28 May, 1974 a bomb exploded in a garbage container in Bresica leading to the arrest of members of a Communist organization but there was no evidence against them. The arrest was made on the basis of anonymous phone calls. On 4 August 1974, twelve people were killed and 105 injured when a bomb exploded on a train traveling between Rome and Munich. Sixteen years later two members of a criminal gang with connections to the head of P2 were sentenced for the crime.
The former Italian Prime Minister Aldo Moro was kidnapped on March 16, 1978 while on his way to the Parliament which was to discuss a national unity government involving a coalition of Christian Democrats, Socialists and Communists. Aldo Moro was Prime Minister of Italy from 1963-1968 and then from 1974-1976. On a 1974 visit to the U.S., the war criminal Henry Kissinger had threatened him: “You must abandon your policy of bringing all the political forces in your country into direct collaboration, or you will pay dearly for it.”  It is said that Aldo Moro was so disturbed by this threat that he fell ill upon return. Prime Minister Guilio Andreotti, who was a member of the P2 Masonic Lodge, immediately blamed a left wing organization, the Red Brigade. A massive hunt for Aldo Moro was launched but he was nowhere to be found. At the time of Moro’s abduction Francesco Cossiga was the President. In March 2008 he made two admissions . He stated that he had authorized the circulation of a false statement that Moro had been killed when in fact Moro was alive at that time. He also stated that Moro was killed for the sake of the “stability of the state.” This is a clear-cut admission that it was the state that killed Moro. But the state was implementing Kissinger’s threat through Gladio units. In fact in October 1990 letters were uncovered in Milan in which Aldo Moro had stated  that he was in fear of a shadow organization, which, along with “other secret service of the West . . . might be implicated in the destabilization of the country.” That shadow organization was none else than the Gladio outfit.
The most lethal Gladio sabotage was carried out on August 2, 1980 at the Bologna train station. A time bomb exploded in the packed and air-conditioned waiting area of the station killing 84 people and wounding 200. This carnage shook Italy. At the same time it was beginning of the unraveling of Gladio operations in Italy. The explosive used by the saboteurs involved TNT and Composition B, an explosive material used exclusively by the U.S. Army. The involvement of state and/ or foreign hand was quite obvious. In fact in 1984 Vincenzo Vinguerra, a member of fascist group, gave revealing testimony about the activities of the deep and hidden organizations. He stated :
“With the massacre of Peteano, and with all those that have followed, the knowledge should by now be clear that there existed a real live structure, occult and hidden, with the capacity of giving a strategic direction to the outrages...[it] lies within the state itself...There exists in Italy a secret force parallel to the armed forces, composed of civilians and military men, in an anti-Soviet capacity that is, to organise a resistance on Italian soil against a Russian army. . . A secret organization, a super-organization with a network of communications, arms and explosives, and men trained to use them...A super-organization which, lacking a Soviet military invasion which might not happen, took up the task, on NATO's behalf, of preventing a slip to the left in the political balance of the country. This they did, with the assistance of the official secret services and the political and military forces. . .
The terrorist line was followed by camouflaged people, people belonging to the security apparatus, or those linked to the state apparatus through rapport or collaboration. I say that every single outrage that followed from 1969 fitted into a single, organized matrix... Avanguardia Nazionale, like Ordine Nuovo (the main right-wing terrorist group active during the 1970s), were being mobilised into the battle as part of an anti-communist strategy originating not with organizations deviant from the institutions of power, but from within the state itself, and specifically from within the ambit of the state's relations within the Atlantic Alliance.”
In his article Peter Dale Scott has quoted two other men, General Vito Miceli, the Italian Head of Military Intelligence and another conspirator Carlo Diglio. Scott writes:
“General Vito Miceli, the Italian head of military intelligence, after his arrest in 1974 on a charge of conspiring to overthrow the government, testified "that the incriminated organization, . . . was formed under a secret agreement with the United States and within the framework of NATO." Former Italian defense minister Paulo Taviani told Magistrate Casson during a 1990 investigation "that during his time in office (1955-58), the Italian secret services were bossed and financed by ‘the boys in Via Veneto'—i.e. the CIA agents in the U.S. Embassy in the heart of Rome." In 2000 "an Italian secret service general [Giandelio Maletti] said . . . that the CIA gave its tacit approval to a series of bombings in Italy in the 1970s to sow instability and keep communists from taking power. . . . ‘The CIA wanted, through the birth of an extreme nationalism and the contribution of the far right, particularly Ordine Nuovo, to stop (Italy) sliding to the left,'” he said.
Another conspirator, Carlo Digilio, "described how he passed on details of planned bomb attacks to his CIA contact, Captain David Carret, who had told him that the bombing campaign was part of a U.S. plan to create a state of emergency.”
P2 was under suspicion and when the police raided the residence of Licio Gelli, the Grandmaster of the P2 Lodge, they found a list of 962 members of P2. The list included top military officers in the Italian and Argentinean intelligence and security set up as well as important politicians, judges, media personalities, etc. The Italian public was furious and aghast that their own leadership was busy murdering them. Licio Gelli’s daughter’s baggage was checked as she was departing from Rome airport. Her suitcase contained two secret documents revealing the Master plan of P2, the clear involvement of the U.S. agencies in these sabotage activities, and of the connection between P2 and the U.S. agencies. As Paul Williams states :
“The two documents outlining the master plan of the Masonic group, coupled with top secret U.S. Army document, were enough to convince Judge Felice Casson and his team of investigators that P2 had been involved in the attacks and the secret society was acting as a proxy of the CIA. What’s more, the investigators realized that the secret society, acting under orders of U.S. officials, had been instigating acts of terror throughout the Western World, and most particularly in Argentina, under the watchful eye if not the blessing of Jorge Mario Bergoglio, who would ascend the papal throne as Pope Francis I.”
Giovanni Pellegerino, president of the Italian parliamentary commission investigating Gladio crimes stated :
The official figures say alone in the period between January 1, 1969 and December 31, 1987, there have been in Italy 14,591 acts of violence with a political motivation. It may be worth remembering that these “acts” have left behind 491 dead and 1,181 injured and maimed – figures of a war without parallel in any other European country.
The Italians refer to these dark years, when lead bullets and bombs were used in unprecedented numbers as anno di piombi – years of the lead. The Italians were made to pay the price for espousing democratic values in which there was room for all shades of thought, including the left. But the Italians, and only the Italians among all nations subjected to this hideous agenda of destabilization, were able to expose the foul and murderous connection between their own deep state and the U.S. agencies.
The Italian case of Gladio subversion has been dealt with in detail because the Italian government admitted to the false flag sabotage and murder, in Parliament. The Italian public, the police, the media, the Parliament and sections of the judiciary, all combined, displayed far more cumulative integrity and fearlessness in the Gladio investigations than their counterparts in any other Western country. Other Western countries were also subjected to Gladio subversion, in which many innocent people were killed. Prominent personalities were also eliminated. The end of the Soviet Union did not give much of a respite to the assault on democracy and on universal human values in the West. After staging 9/11 the powers that be have continued Gladio replacing the Communist bogey by Islam. Each major carnage in the West, including the ones in the U.S., when dissected closely, turns out to lead to conclusions contrary to what the corporate media, and the government, seem to suggest or claim. The continual Gladio subversion and carnage in different countries of Western Europe, always dubbed officially as having been carried out by activist groups had one thing in common. Richard Cottrell writes :
A common stripe ran through all the urban revolutionary forces that arose in Europe. They were riddled with double agents planted by the secret intelligence services to provoke takeaway terror to order.
The Turkish Gladio was sometimes known as Counter- Guerilla. This para-military group was funded by the CIA and was behind the 1960 coup that led to the death sentence of the popular Prime Minister Adnan Menderes by a kangaroo court. Adnan Menederes was dubbed as Islamist. The fact of the matter is quite different . As Cottrell states :
The Turkish Prime Minister Adnan Menderes was hanged on the orders of a military kangaroo court in 1961, because he threatened to choke the highly profitable contraband trails passing through Turkey. These were in part controlled and organized by the CIA and their confederates in the Turkish Mafia, the powerful Army high command, the rogue Turkish state secret service MIT, and violent far right mercenaries. Menderese’ counterfeit leanings to an Islamic republic were a confection manufactured by US intelligence.
Once civilian rule was restored Col. Alparslan Turkes, one of the men behind the coup, set up a political party by the name National Action Party. It had a paramilitary youth wing named Grey Wolves. The National Action Party and the Grey Wolves were funded by the CIA and espoused a Pan-Turkic ideology laying claim to parts of the Soviet Union . Williams also points out that Menderes was planning to go to Moscow to secure economic aid.
While Menderes was hanged through a kangaroo military court after a CIA sponsored coup, Gladio was used to eliminate the Swedish Prime Minister Olof Palme differently. He was killed by an unknown assassin’s bullet while still a Prime Minister. Why was Olof Palme killed? Those who controlled Galdio at the operational level, viz. CIA and some senior military officers exercising control over military agencies, had, apparently on their own, determined that any politician or leader who stood in the way of the objectives determined by the CIA and the military, must be eliminated. Olof Palme was a charming figure who had kindled the kind of hope among the western people as JFK had. He was sympathetic to the Palestinians, he was critical of the U.S. policies and was active in trying to stop the Iran-Iraq war, a war resulting from U.S. manipulation, a war deliberately prolonged by the U.S.-Israel combination in order to bleed two resource rich Muslim countries with military and intellectual potential, to poverty and eventual subjugation. Palme was also Cuba-friendly. He was also anti-apartheid and a couple of weeks before his assassination he had delivered an impassioned speech before the parliament against apartheid.
He had to be stopped because he was growing in international stature and influence and was genuinely liberal and humane, opposed to U.S. and Israeli policies, particularly Iran-Iraq war, and represented a model of leadership which, if emulated in other western countries, would have marginalized the empire-builders and profiteers. He was for open government and spurned security. As he came out of the Grand Cinema on February 28, 1986, a single assassin stepped out of nowhere and shot him in his back with his revolver positioned to pierce the heart, killing Palme instantly. He also wounded Mrs. Palme slightly. An on-the-scene police officer who began talking several years after the murder, commented on the strange behavior of his colleagues. As Cottrell writes :
Despite the call for aid, it took a full seven minutes for the first police cars to reach the scene. There was no general alert and lockdown, as one might expect in these high-profile circumstances. Only selected cars got the alarm anyway. One officer made the astonishing claim he ‘wasn’t sure’ it was actually Palme lying in a pool of blood, although his was the best-known face in the country, after the king. The superintendent Gosta Soderstrom, blew the whistle that police units in the capital were in the thrall of Right-wing extremism and ‘were lying about the murder.’ His most serious charge was that ‘they [police at the scene] helped him [the gunman] escape.’ Many factual records of the night’s events vanished.
Two years after the murder a petty criminal and drug runner named Christer Petterson turned up as the murderer and was first convicted, and then cleared on appeal. Years later, in 2004, he announced to the media that he had a message for Olof Palme’s son and would like to meet him. But the meeting never took place. He was found in a coma in his apartment with serious head injuries on September 16, 2004. Quite expectedly he did not survive. Newspapers said that he was last visited by the police the day before, on September 15.
The Swedish American journalist John Anderson, who has investigated the JFK and Olof Palme murders for years, has stated :
The responsibility for Olof Palme's murder belongs with the CIA and the political network in the world controlled by the American intelligence apparatus. I tend to think that the CIA and George Bush are the "bad guys" here. Bush continued the policies of wars for profit with deliveries of weapons to Iran, Iraq and the Contras.
A vast disinformation network about Olof Palme continues to mislead the public everywhere. The five article series by John Anderson, Tony Widing and Anders Leopold known as the Leopold Reports (posted on www.leopoldreports.com) have clearly exposed the CIA controlled disinformation on the assassination. Why the need for disinformation? As the authors write in the first of the five article series :
When an intelligence service carries out a state-controlled murder, everything is well prepared. It has in due time planned for dissemination of false leads based on disinformation before, during and after the murder. A number of people appear as disinformants. The murder of Olof Palme is characterized by disinformation that destroyed the investigation already at an early stage. We start with the quite unique angle that we identify disinformants that were part of the conspiracy. They can be tied together, and further directly to US intelligence services. Thus, we can prove that the killing of UN peace broker and Swedish Prime Minister at February 28, 1986, was a state-controlled operation, and probably the most serious and still not revealed part of what later became known as the Iran-Contra affair.
The Gladio controllers did not just rest with the murder of Olof Palme. On September 10, 2003 Swedish Foreign Minister Anna Lindh was stabbed while shopping in an exclusive store, and died on September 13 in hospital where she had undergone hours of surgery. Anna Lindh was widely seen as Olof Plame’s successor and her world view was similar to his. Christopher Bollyn has pointed out that Bouthaina Shabaan, Syrian Minister wrote an article on her death and pointed out that Anna Lindh had :
Called upon the European Union, on April 3, 2002, to sever ties with Israel in protest against Israeli practices;
Called on US President George W. Bush to deny Sharon unconditional support, as this would inflame the Middle East;
Stressed that the only solution in the Middle East rested in ending the Israeli occupation (otherwise everybody would become a hostage to the conflict);
Played an important role in shaping the EU’s decision to adopt a policy toward Palestinian President Yasser Arafat different from that of the U.S.;
Confirmed the importance of Arafat as a partner in the peace process, rejecting Washington’s claims that he supported terrorism;
Stood firmly against the war on Iraq;
And warned of the dangers of changing another country’s regime without the support of international law.
These were strong reasons to kill her. Bollyn further points out that
Lindh was an outspoken critic of Israel’s prime minister Ariel Sharon and his brutal policies affecting the millions of Palestinians living under Israeli occupation: "Our stand is firm and clear,” the foreign minister said in an October 2001 interview :-
• "Israeli settlements on the West Bank must go;
• there must be a Palestinian state;
• Israel must vacate occupied areas on the West Bank and Gaza Strip; and
• end all extra-territorial executions and attacks on Palestinians.
• This should be done immediately.”
As pointed out by various authors Anna Lindh was the fourth prominent Swede opposed to Israel who was killed. The first one, Count Folke Bernadotte, was killed by the notorious Stern Gang terrorists in 1948. He was the chief UN negotiator for Palestine. UN Secretary General Dag Hammarskjold, a genuine peacemaker was killed in a plane crash in 1961. In December 2014, UN reopened investigation into the plane crash as evidence emerged that he may have been killed by Western agents, in particular by British and American agencies in service of their corporate masters. Olof Palme was killed in 1986.
Cotterell states :
Lindh seems to have crossed a personal political Rubicon after surrendering to American political bullying to allow the CIA’s snatching of an Egyptian citizen called Ahmed Agiza from Stockholm street just before Christmas 2001 – with the help of Swedish intelligence. She subsequently told associates that she felt bitterly scarred by the experience, and the volume of her opposition to Israeli and American policies rose sharply afterwards.
The killer or killers escaped very easily from the store. There was no resistance from the guards. In fact the company that provided security to the store where Lindh was killed would not provide any details of how many guards were posted in the store and at what locations when asked by Bollyn. The video cameras on the floor where she was attacked, the cameras on the escalator, were either inoperative or mysteriously switched off that day. One witness described a single killer who stabbed her and escaped by an escalator. The standard state security argument was invoked to prevent release of information to the media and the public. The ambulance arrived in one minute and on the van was the most senior adviser from Lindh’s ministry. That is a very very strange thing. Was the ambulance waiting around the corner along with the senior adviser in it? What are the odds of such a coincidence? The police took ten minutes to arrive. According to initial reports she was stabbed in the arm and was not seriously wounded. She then died after a lengthy operation. Unanswered questions abound about her death. And yet, as Moti Nissani writes : “In a world ruled by a secretive cabal, truth seekers must at time stand behind reasonable conjectures.” As Cottrell states :
The police pounced on a 25-year-old Swedish born Serb, Mijailo Mijalovic, who appeared to hail from false-flag central casting. Mijalovic was rootless and dysfunctional, those excellent qualifications for an aspiring patsy. But difficulties immediately arose concerning conflicting descriptions of the alleged assassin, who to complicate matters kept referring to ‘we’ under interrogation. There was reprise in Norway eight years later. The gunman Anders Behring Breivik accused of a crazed solo massacre in July 2011 that claimed scores of victims, also spoke of accomplices.”
Cottrell also points out that Bollyn concluded from his investigations and analysis that Lindh was taken out by an expert hit-squad of at least four killers who had been tailing her all morning. Concealment of information, failure of security cameras at the store, the initial assessment that Lindh was not serious, and her death after a “prolonged operation” all point cumulatively to an involvement of the deep state in collusion with the U.S. agencies and possibly Mossad.
Gladio operations pervaded Europe and South America in the pre 9/11 era as “anti-Communist operations.” Belgium, Norway, Germany, Greece, Portugal, Spain and other West European democracies bore Gladio terror in these years. While I was doing my Ph.D. at Edinburgh University, Scotland in the second half of the 1970s, the Baader-Meinhof gang, formally known as the Rote Armee Fraktion (Red Army Faction) or RAF, suddenly burst into news at the international level. The cause of their international fame resulted from their abduction, in 1977, of Hanns Martin Schleyer, a representative of the West German capitalist class. The abduction took place on September 5, the same date on which Israeli sportsmen were killed in 1972. It was a familiar tactic of the Gladio operators to infiltrate left wing movements and steer them in directions that suited those who ran Gladio. In what was a precursor of the Aldo Moro abduction the following year, the abduction of Schleyer lasted 44 days. Cottrell has noted several similarities between the two abductions :
“. . . a bloody assault on security guards, protracted manhunts, and regular parading of the victims revolutionary banners (the staged Moro and Schleyer poses were, curiosly, virtually identical). . . Both murders bore the same clear blueprint, exquisitely prolonged to cultivate maximum impact on public opinion and reap the desired political harvest. This was the standard feature of the Strategy of Tension.”
During these 44 days, at least in the beginning the authorities were very close to finding him out but seemed disinterested. Valuable and solid clues about suspicious activity in a local flat, including numbers of suspicious vehicles, had been provided to them by witnesses. But the police seemed to let the opportunity slip away for no obvious reason. In the 44 days in captivity, Schleyer was moved between four different countries, Germany, Netherlands, Belgium and France. How on earth could that happen when the Interpol had been alerted and the case had drawn worldwide attention. He was killed near Mulhouse, a town close the Swiss border in eastern France, on October 18, 1977 with three shots at the back of his head. As Cottrell points out :
“Yves Guerin-Serac, the Frenchman who wrote the manuals of Gladio terrorism, laid special emphasis on infiltrating movements organized in the name of social protest, with the object to manipulate their direction and tactics. . . .Geurin-Serac taught the clever ploy of intercepting plans for terrorist attacks and then allowing those events to happen. The authorities would then reap the propaganda benefits in terms of social persuasion. The destruction of the Communist party in Italy in the wake of the Aldo Moro affair in 1978 was a classic example. But first Germany led the way with a remarkably similar demonstration that bore overtones of a rehearsal. The political prizes of a sensational episode were attractive. It ended with the elimination of the RAF royal family. It also marked the steady slide of federal Germany into a reflection of the pre-war national security state.”
The 1980 Munich Oktoberfest bombing was the most frightening Gladio attack on German soil. The Munich Oktoberfest is held in Munich and is an occasion where people enjoy beer – it is a beer-swill. It runs for about 16 days from the end of last week of September to first weekend in October. The festival is attended by about six million people and is regarded as the biggest festival in the world. During the 1980 Munich Oktoberfest, a bomb blast killed thirteen people and injured over two hundred, 68 of them seriously. Apparently a bomb placed in a waste paper basket exploded on Friday night, September 26, 1980, when the rush was at its peak. What was the object of killing people who had gathered to enjoy themselves and who were merrymaking? It had to be the work of those who wanted to terrorize the people and give the public the impression that the state was their only refuge.
The bomb blast was a typical Gladio activity and what followed bore its marks. An election was due to take place in which the incumbent Prime Minister of Bavaria Franz Josef Strauss (CSU) was running against Chancellor Helmut Kohl of the SDP. Immediately after the blast the CSU leadership attributed responsibility of the bomb attack on the Red Army Faction (RAF) and then attacked SDP government for being too soft on the left wing. But this Gladio designed response subsided as soon as evidence began to emerge about the right wing connection of Kohler, the alleged bomber. In 2011 the German paper Der Speigel reported that Kohler, the student who died in the attack and was blamed for the bombing, had been going around saying that exploding a bomb in Hamburg, or Bonn or Munich, and blaming the left for it, Strauss could be made to win the election.
The blast was then attributed solely to Gundolf Kohler, a 21 year old geology student who had very strong leanings towards the far right parties. Kohler was killed in the blast and the authorities put forward the thesis that he was a lovesick student who wanted to harm himself and others. This theory of a sole perpetrator was put forward despite the fact that witnesses had seen him arguing with some people shortly before the bomb went off and despite the fact that he had links with an extreme right wing group. As early as 29 September, Larry Gerber reported in The Lewiston Daily Sun that neo-Nazi groups were suspected in the bombing . Papers pertaining to a group known as “Military Sport Group Hoffman” were found near the body of Kohler. This name is very suggestive – one may recall the name Austrian Hiking Sports and Society Club – the name of the Austrian Gladio group. Police raided the homes of several members of the group and found grenades, mines and explosives. West German police also confiscated three off-road trucks and three personnel carriers that were trying to enter Austria. The Bavarian Interior Minister however refused to confirm or deny whether the drivers had been arrested. The 43 year old leader of the group, Karl Heinz Hoffman, and five other members of the group were taken into custody but, as it happens with Gladio cases, nothing came of it. The Bavarian authorities terminated the investigation after two years on the basis of the implausible hypothesis that Kohler was a lone disgruntled perpetrator of the act.
It appears from a story published by Der Speigel in 2011 that the Oktoberfest case was reopened in 2011, but for some reason, it was at the end of 2014 that the global media reported it! Dave Emory posted a story on spitfirelist.com on November 1, 2011 stating  (emphasis in original):
Another clue also raises questions about the background of the Oktoberfest attack. A few weeks earlier, Köhler’s idol Hoffmann apparently met in Italy with the internationally feared neo-fascist Joachim Fiebelkorn. The neo-Nazi from the town of Eppstein in the Taunus Mountains near Frankfurt was an informant for the German Federal Criminal Police Office (BKA) and a number of intelligence agencies. He also helped Klaus Barbie, the former head of the Gestapo in Lyon, build a paramilitary combat group in Bolivia. According to previously unknown Stasi documents, Fiebelkorn, “at the instruction of Chiaie,” had met with “Karl-Heinz Hoffmann in Rome on July 13, 1980,” as well as with French and Italian right-wing extremists. The Italian neo-fascist Stefano delle Chiaie was viewed as one of the leading international terrorists of the day, a sort of right-wing counterpart to the left-wing terrorist “Carlos.” Western intelligence agencies held Chiaie and his varying terrorist organizations, like “Ordine Nuovo,” responsible for anti-communist attacks on several continents in the 1970s and 1980s. . . .
Even when Gladio terrorism and state complicity in bombings and murder in Italy was admitted to by Prime Minister Guilio Andreotti in 1990, none in German government had the courage to pursue the question that the Oktoberfest bombing may have been the work of a group involving the far right extremists supported by CIA et al. This is despite the fact that such extremists were most likely to be recruited as German gladiators. However the persistent efforts of a non-fiction writer Ulrich Chaussy, and attorney Werner Dietrich, who represented the families of the victims, prevented the case from being consigned to permanent oblivion.
Dietrich was able to gain access to files that were hitherto kept in secrecy. As a consequence the names of at least five eye witnesses, who were also injured in the blast, came to light. The testimony of these witnesses had been ignored by the police for decades! Why? Further clue 253 in the files pointed to a very important Gladio type link involving a connection between Kohler and Heinz Lembke. The life trajectory of Lembke indicated his clear involvement with deeper agencies. Lembke escaped from East Germany to West Germany in 1959 and immediately joined extreme right wing groups. He was a member of the Patriotic Youth League (BVJ) that was banned in 1962. Dietmar Henning wrote on December 29, 2015 :
Lembke oversaw at least 33 weapons depots—stockpiling rocket-propelled grenades, hand grenades, explosives, machine guns, pistols, ammunition and even chemical warfare agents, all of which was mostly obtained from Bundeswehr (German army) reserves. He also organised “paramilitary exercises” and became a supplier of weapons for neo-Nazi terrorists.
Lembke, a forestry official, evidently maintained contact with Wehrsportgruppe Hoffmann, as did Köhler. The day after the Oktoberfest bombing, two detained right-wing extremists drew the investigators’ attention to Lembke. A subsequent house search allegedly came up with nothing. It was only by chance that Lembke’s weapons caches were discovered and he was arrested a year later.
Only a Gladio type group could have the kind of weapons described above. In Italy too Gladio had numerous hidden weapon depots. Dietmar Henning states further:
After he had notified the federal prosecutor on Friday, October 30, 1981 that he wanted to make a comprehensive statement the following Monday, Lembke was found hanging from a cord in his cell. The Bundeswehr immediately destroyed the weapons found in Lembke’s depots. A forensic comparison with the explosive used in the Oktoberfest bomb was not carried out.
Why was no forensic comparison carried out? The German nation is much too thorough and meticulous in its work – failure to carry out a forensic comparison is in conflict with German thoroughness. As for the hanging one may note that Paul L. Williams has pointed out in his book on Gladio, the gladiators can get into any prison cell of Europe and either free or eliminate the one they want to. In any case the secret or deep state is always involved in such acts. Attorney Werner Dietrich also found the following sentence in the files pertaining to Lembke: “Known facts about Lembke are only partly admissible in court.” Dietrich observes that such remarks are usually the work of secret service or undercover agents.
It may also be borne in mind that 47 cigarette butts of six different brands were found in the backseat ashtrays of Kohler’s car that was parked a bare 200 meters from the pace of explosion. Cigarettes of six different brands could not be smoked by one individual – there is no doubt that other people were involved because if Kohler smoked it is unlikely he would do so in his backseat. When the victim’s families demanded DNA analysis in 2010 the Federal Crime Investigation Agency (BKA) revealed that it had destroyed all evidence in the case according to normal legal procedures or practices. Nobody in German law enforcement or the government had, it appears, the guts to stand up and say that after Gladio revelations in Italy we should look at the possibility of Gladio like groups and CIA et al’s involvement.
In an article published by Der Spiegel  the authors Jan Friedmann, Cony Neumann, Steve Robel and Steffen Winterpoint out that previously unknown letters found in a deceased person’s estate in Southern Germany shed important light on the case. In particular these letters reveal that the key witness in the case, a Frank Lauterjung, was actively associated with right wing parties and may have been working for German intelligence. He was able to provide more detailed evidence in the case than anyone else and his presence on the scene may not have been a coincidence.
One female witness came forward with decisive testimony. On the day following the explosion she had seen a student belonging to a right wing party distributing a pamphlet eulogizing Kohler as a martyr. Since the police had not yet divulged Kohler’s name, this clearly established that some other people, or group, knew that Kohler was involved. How could they know this unless they, or those behind them, had planned the bombing, and knew already that Kohler would be present at the scene, and would die. It was this testimony that was decisive in changing the mind of Harald Range, the Prosecutor General. It appears that it was decided to reopen the case in 2011 although the global media reported this in 2014 (e.g. New York Times reported this on December 11, 2014, the Daily Mail reported this on December 12, 2014, and so on). The case for a lone bomber does not stand the most cursory survey of known facts. Why were the German authorities sticking to this untenable fiction for decades? Who was so powerful as to compel the German authorities to espouse an illogical position, a position inconsistent with the facts of the case? Now three and a half decades have passed with much of the evidence destroyed – yet an overall view of the case, in conjunction with Italian Gladio sabotage and revelations by those arrested, leaves one in little doubt that the 1980 Oktoberfest bombing was a CIA et al driven operation.
In Belgium, the Gladio network apparently began in 1948. The State Security Service entered into negotiations with the British SIS (MI6) and the CIA. Belgium was gradually and secretly inducted into the allied structure of clandestine operations. Once De Gaulle took France out of NATO, because Gladio units made several attempts to kill him, NATO moved its headquarters to Belgium exercising deeper control over its affairs. The American forces, in collusion with the Belgian military and Gladio opeartors, attacked several military camps. The Belgian authorities tried to make these attacks look like attacks by the Communists. A former Belgian Para-commander and a bank manager, Lucien Dislair told the BBC in 1992  (I have transcribed the statements) that he was approached by “some people” who asked for his help for
“special manoeuvres in coordination with the American Special Forces. The Belgian commandos were told to recover American paratroopers. After the operation they were to go to predetermined spots and attack barracks belonging to the Gendarmerie. I had with me the weapons and the radio transmitter for coordinating it all. There had been trouble a few days earlier – the Americans had gone too far. These were people in their forties, officers and tough guys. They took the game too far. They had attacked a barracks before. They had even thrown a grenade near the Attorney General’s office. The civilian authorities reacted, saying this was too much. It was then that the planned attack on Vielsalm barracks was cancelled. The day of the attack we were told that it had been cancelled. But the Americans asked me to drive me to the camp as a “stand by.” The next morning I went with my wife to Namur. I heard on the radio that the barracks had been attacked at midnight. I can’t say what happened, because I left at 8.00 pm. I wasn’t supposed to stay. The following day the commander of Vielsalm barracks called me and updated me on the operation. He told me to tell the Belgian commandos that the guard wasn’t dead. He was in hospital seriously wounded.”
In the same program journalist Rene Haquin told the BBC that there had been attacks on a military fuel depot in Bastogne, another at a police station at Neufchateau. He also revealed that the military and the government admitted to an attack on Vielsalm barracks but then added that the arms stolen from there were found in a flat belonging to Cellules Communistes Combatantes. Of course the immediate question that was asked was whether the arms had been planted there to create that impression? In view of what Lucien Dislair had told the BBC as well as Rene Haquin, there is absolutely no doubt that the Americans were involved in these attacks directly, without any regard for Belgian lives. One of those Belgians involved in a particular phase of the Belgian Gladio operations stated that the Americans were directly in touch with at least one of the operators regarding the operations they had been ordered to carry out :
“Our sole concern was with action. We knew we were protected by all possible authorities, depending on the type of mission. . . On received orders. We can go back to say ‘82. From’ 82 to ‘85 there were projects. “You, Mr, Libert, know nothing about why we are doing this. Nothing at all. All we ask is your group, under cover of Gendarmerie, with cover from security, will carry out a job. Target: the supermarkets. Where are they? What kind of locks are there? What sort of protection do they have that could interfere with our operation? Does the sore manager lock them up? Or do they use an outside security company? ” We carried out our orders and sent in our reports. Hours of opening and closing. Everything you want to know about a supermarket. What was this for? This was one amongst hundreds of missions. Something that had to be done. But the use it was put to? That is the big question.”
Of course one may put two and two together. The so called Brabant Supermarket Massacres needed all the above information. Where were the victims killed? Some in the car parks, some inside. The witnesses in one incident stated that the attackers were all wearing carnival masks. For four years, from 1982 to 1985, these random killings continued and then the killers vanished. These killings took place in the Brabant province of Belgium. In these attacks a total of 28 people lost their lives and 40 were injured. A Gladio operator told the BBC that the purpose of all these hold ups and killings was to discredit the left.
Cottrell (p 307) has remarked that Supermarket Massacres is a misnomer because restaurants and shops, including Jewish jeweler shops, were also attacked. He states that the public reaction was so strong that NATO authorities were taken aback. The Belgian parliament unanimously rejected the explanation of the police authorities according to which these were carried out by criminal elements as absurd. The Belgians began thinking of moving out of NATO.
Cottrell has described the horrendous loss of life at the Heysel football stadium as a Gladio operation. He mentions that the request of both, the Juventus and the Liverpool management to change the stadium was rejected despite the fact that both managements felt that the Heysel stadium was too run down and decrepit to be the stage of such a huge event. He describes it in the following words :
On 29th May 1985, television pictures flashed around the world and told the story of a bloody massacre at Heysel football stadium in the Flemish-dominated outskirts of Brussels, long a dominion of neo-Nazi thugs and skinheads. An encounter between the European titans Liverpool and Juventus finished in one of the worst riots in the history of the game, leaving the bodies of 39 Italian fans crushed to death on the terraces and dozens more injured. What happened at Heysel that day bore all the signs of a deliberately incited, designer riot. But now as the football world mourned it was time to beckon on the usual scapegoats. Kneejerk reactions placed the blame squarely on Liverpool supporters. Margaret Thatcher, who intrinsically despised anything tainted by socialist Merseyside, led the charge. British football was instantly banished from Europe, while Liverpool FC found itself the subject of odium for years to come over alleged behavior of its supporters. There was some general muttering about the inadequacy of Belgian crowd control, but almost no one except Liverpool chief executive Peter Robinson noted the disturbing background to the catastrophe.
Peter Robinson noted several things. Firstly, in violation of the usual precautions, all tickets had been sold by Belgian sources. That increased the probability of violence. Secondly the police contingent had been downgraded. The usual gendarmes were, surprisingly, replaced by Rijkswacht, an elite military police outfit controlled directly by the Ministry of Defense. Then the local people pointed out that just before the match started there was a sudden influx of a large contingent of skinheads, some of whom were, it appeared already familiar with the military police and were seen exchanging smiles with them. The military police is usually brought in for VIPs, but as Cottrell notes:
“But other eyewitnesses noted how the senior commanders apparently not only expected the phalanx of skinheads, but were sufficiently acquainted with their leadership to get into ‘smiling conversations’. One ordinary gendarme I found told me as he surveyed the shambles: ’This could only have been made to happen. Those people (the rival fans) were shunted so close together that it was like preparing a match for gunpowder. Then our skinheads were let into the ground and that is when the trouble started.’ He shook his head and went on: ‘It’s like Brabant, Nivelles.”
Cottrell who was a member of the European Parliament at that time points out that when his Brussels office tried to locate that gendarmerie officer a week later, they were told that no such officer existed or had ever served in the Gendarmerie!
What was the purpose and effect of this violence? Wilfried Martens’s government seemed to have become unpopular and the left seemed to be doing better. Since he was a staunch NATO supporter, it was felt that he should continue in power. Cottrell writes (p 310):
“Here was an utterly cynical diversion designed to focus the country’s voters away from the missiles affair, the growing pension crisis, and accelerating economic woes, and of course, the rival attractions of the Left. Stupefied Belgians – preoccupied above all with one uniting passion that holds the fragile country together, namely the national game – could think of nothing else but the tragedy. A semi-ruined soccer stadium, close to skinhead abd neo-Nazi territory, skimmed of virtually any security precautions despite a high likelihood of friction between the protagonists, came straight out of Gladio central scripting. In a country where families were mown down while doing their shopping, children tortured to death in dark cellars or chased through woods by ravenous dogs, Heysel fitted the black landscape of designer atrocities.”
Pedophilia, drug running, prostitution, kickbacks, corruption, all these at the highest places, and murder and mayhem, were all part of a larger design to control , terrorize and brutalize a small country which had allowed NATO to headquarter itself there. Anyone attempting to expose those involved in these hideous pursuits would be dead, no matter how highly placed. Many a time Gladio operations were brought into play as a diversionary tactic designed to focus attention away from exposure of the deep criminals of national and international standing! Corruption in arms sales was particularly prominent as it involved huge sums of money. Arms and ammunition was transported from Belgian ports to Iraq to prolong the Iran-Iraq war and of course to make enormous profits. This was in violation of the UN sanctions but it was carried out with the approval of Thatcher, Bush and Reagan administrations.
A Canadian arms dealer named Gerald Bull was murdered in Brussels in 1990. Gerald Bull was engaged in a joint venture with an explosives cartel named Poudrieres Reunies Belgique (PRB). The Astra Company, owned by a British arms merchant Gerald James, had bought controlling interests in PRB in 1989 and employed Margaret Thatcher’s son Mark Thatcher as a highly paid consultant. Andre Cools, an ex deputy prime minister of Belgium, was investigating the murder of Gerald Bull, among other things. Apparently he had found things that seemed to incriminate Dick Cheney, Neil Bush, Frank Carlucci, Donald Rumsfeld, Jonathan Aitken, who was Thatcher’s secretary of state for defense, and the highly influential, and probably the richest, Canadian family, the Bronfman brothers . The Bronfman family owns the NBC Universal, one of the six largest media corporations in the world that presently own over 90% of US media. Further Edgar Bronfman Sr. was the President of the World Jewish Congress from 1981-2007. Cools made the mistake of announcing that he would be releasing explosive information to the press shortly. He was assassinated practically instantaneously. He was shot by assailants outside the home of his mistress on July 18, 1991. Cools had himself been tainted by the Italian Agusta helicopter scandal. Cottrell has expressed the opinion that Cools was being blackmailed and he had decided that if he was going down he should reveal everything and take all others down with him too. But this was not to be.
The case of Cools’ assassination was handed over to Judge Jean-Marc Connerotte who, it appears, had cracked the case within weeks. Oswald LeWinter [ref. 51], who looked at the files of Judge Connerotte and official files of the Belgians, the Portuguese and the Americans, has stated that Judge Connerotte was about to “indict several prominent politicians, some resident Italian Mafioso and members of a Gladio assassination squad operating out of Turnai.” However the Ministry of Justice removed Judge Connerotte from the case, a removal that created an uproar in Belgium. Judge Connerotte was also investigating the infamous Dutroux case involving pedophilia, drug running and prostitution. The Dutroux case was evil and utterly inhuman. Cottrell writes :
“Despite the worldwide outcry, for almost three years the state system lost all interest in Dutroux and his crimes. It turned its main attention on discrediting the annoyingly persistent Connerotte and his legal career. This required instructions from the highest quarters of the state. The authorities were playing for time, gambling that the attention span of the public would fade away, once the case and its lurid claims disappeared from the headlines. To ensure national amnesia no less than nine crucial witnesses met violent deaths. . . . In March 2004 German television channel ZDF suggested that as many as 27 people with important evidence concerning the vice, blackmail and extortion rings had been killed, committed suicide or disappeared in suspicious circumstances.”
The Dutroux case is one of the darkest chapters in the history of civilized society but we will not go into it here.
Gladio activities in Greece have been described in detail by Daniele Ganser, who pioneered Gladio research, and by Richard Cottrell. Gladio operations subverted Greece as early as 1944 while Gladio had not been formally set up. The Nazis faced stiff resistance from the Greeks, the resistance being led by the Communists. EAM, the political wing of the Greek People’s Liberation Army, had a membership of approximately two million. The Greek population at that time was around seven million. Churchill planned to install a puppet king in power supported by a right wing government. Ruthless force was employed to achieve this end. The British joined hands with the Nazis in Greece to eliminate the Communist leaders. As it became clear that Britain was using a right-wing army to suppress those who had fought against the Nazis, a peaceful protest was planned in Athens on December 3, 1944. An initial group of between 200 to 600 people preceded the 60,000 people who were to follow them sometime later. However before the arrival of the main crowd the peaceful protesters were fired upon from various directions. The firing lasted almost an hour killing 25 and injuring almost 150 people. “Kill the bastards” was the rallying cry that launched the snipers on their firing spree. When the 60,000 arrived and saw the carnage, they exercised exceptional restraint and decided to stay peaceful. This was the first experience of Greece with the UK and right-wingers, including Nazi supporters, having joined hands to repress the popular will.
Not to be outdone, the Americans joined hands with the British and added their full weight in repressing the Greek leaders who had fought against the Nazis. It so happened that the left wing leadership, angered and frustrated by the British, took to hills and began an armed resistance. The British now requested the Americans to take over and despite the fact that British had indulged in the most heinous violations of human rights, the Americans brought in their armed forces in such large numbers that the resistance forces were outnumbered. In addition they faced a far better equipped adversary, armed with superior weaponry. In Operation Torch the U.S. forces employed Napalm bombing to torch Greek partisans. This is incredible yet the Americans were doing it as far back as the latter half of the 1940s. The U.S. leadership was guilty of serious war crimes. Not unexpectedly the Communists were defeated by the end of 1948 and Greece, with all its bitterness, was handed over to a right-wing government, directed by its master, the U.S. The British had set up the Raiding Force as far back as 1944. Ganser has remarked  that the Raiding Force (acronym LOK), created by the British in 1944, “arguably remains the oldest of the secret stay-behind armies active in Europe during the Cold War.” The Greek Gladio operation was named Operation Sheepskin. Subsequently the CIA and NATO took over, trained and employed the Hellenic Raiding Force. In 1955 a secret formal agreement was signed by General Trascott who represented the CIA the Chief of Staff of the Greek military Konstantin Dovas and the Greek Prime Minister Papagos. The same was secretly renewed in 1960.
It was in 1964 that the American President Lyndon B. Johnson told the Greek ambassador in the U.S. that the ongoing civil war in Cyprus necessitated a partition of Cyprus. When the Greek ambassador expressed disagreement Johnson erupted :
“Then listen to me Mr. Ambassador. Fuck your parliament and your constitution. America is an elephant. Cyprus is a flea. Greece is a flea. If those two fleas continue itching the elephant, they may just get whacked by the elephant’s trunk, whacked good. We pay a lot of good dollars to the Greeks Mr. Ambassador. If your Prime Minister gives me talk about democracy, parliament and constitution, he, his parliament and his constitution may not last very long. . . . Don’t forget to tell old Papa – what’s his name – what I told you. Mind you tell him, you hear. ”
Having instructed the Greek Ambassador to communicate the threat to the Prime Minister George Papandreou, Johnson resorted to a serious threat against the ambassador when he communicated what Johnson had said to him. The cable from the ambassador to the Prime Minister had been intercepted by the NSA. So Johnson rang up the ambassador as soon as he heard of it : “Are you trying to get yourself into my bad books Mr. Ambassador? That was a private conversation me and you had. You had no call putting in all them words I used on you. Watch your step.” And then he disconnected. This is the level to which the U.S. Presidency had sunk - Johnson spoke like a Mafia thug. The world understands that there were many others like Johnson in his footsteps and around the Oval Office. Men like Dick Cheney, Rumsfeld, Bush et al, etc. are all cut out of the same stone. For Johnson the fact that Greece was, along with Christianity, the source of Western thought had no value, just as the remains of important ancient buildings in Babylon had no value for Bush et al.
Andreas Papandreou, the son of the Prime Minister had fled to the U.S. in 1930s where he went into the academic profession becoming the head of the economics department at the University of California, Berkeley. He served in the U.S. Navy during WWII and became a member of the CIA Mediterranean policy group. However he soon understood what the CIA was up to in his country. He therefore broke his ties with the CIA, gave up his U.S. nationality and returned to Greece to become a member of the cabinet in 1964. He then discovered that the Greek secret military service KYP bugged ministerial conversations as a matter of routine. Further the KYP handed over records of these conversations to the CIA. He fired a couple of KYP officers and ordered the new appointee to stop this practice. The man came back to tell him that he could not do so because all equipment was American and operated either by Americans or Greeks under American control!
What was Johnson’s problem? It was simple - the Greeks had a neutral stance in the Cold War. Johnson proved true to his word. A coup was staged to oust an elected government whose civilian head was neutral in the U.S. – Soviet Union conflict. Another election was due and it was quite clear that the Papandreou’s party would return with a thumping majority. How could the agencies of the United States of America allow that? The secret Gladio army, the Hellenic Raiding Force, started the coup on the night between April 20/21, 1967, hand in hand with the army. The Hellenic Raiding Force took over the Defense Ministry at midnight. A CIA plan by the name Prometheus, meant to go into effect in case of a Soviet invasion, was instead put into action to oust an elected government. The people in Athens were fast asleep only to find out in the morning that their phone lines were not working. They then learned of a military coup and were told that the coup had been enacted to “save democracy.” “Within twenty minutes every politician, every man and anarchist who was listed” was rounded up according to the boast of Col. Yannis Ladas, Director of the Greek Military Police. The military knocked at the door of the 78 year old Prime Minister and arrested him. His son Andreas could have escaped but they got hold of his 14 year old son and a soldier put a gun to the head of the boy, forcing Andreas to give up. Ganser writes :
“The Greek junta consolidated its power through a regime of imprisonment and torture, the like of which had not been seen in Western Europe since the end of the Second World War. Most of those who had been arrested in the first hours after the coup were later moved to police and army cells. Communists, Socialists, artists, academics, politically active women, priests, including their friends and families, were tortured. Their toe and fingernails were torn out. Their feet were beaten with sticks, until the skin came off and the bones were broken. Sharp objects were shoved into vaginas. Filthy rags, often soaked in urine, and sometimes excrement, were pushed down their throats to throttle them, tubes were inserted into their anus and water driven in at very high pressure, and electro shocks were applied to their head.”
This coup and its doings were carried out through the secret Gladio army, the Hellenic Raiding Force, working in collusion with the army, under the able guidance of the CIA. How would the CIA et al feel if they were to taste a bit of their own medicine? How many Americans know of these things? With the kind of mind set that is developed in U.S. academic institutions (through teaching of sanitized history, etc.) as well as through the media, there will be many Americans who will simply refuse to believe these things. But others will, if it is brought to their attention.
Andreas Papandreou was kept in confinement for seven months and then released. He took to winning his bread by teaching in Canada and Sweden. He kept on fighting for restoration of democracy from abroad. When the military junta, in accordance with the US script, ousted the left-leaning Bishop Makarios, and attempted to conquer Cyprus, Turkey responded and took control of a part of the island of Cyprus. Cyprus was thus divided. This adventure of the Greek junta led to the partition of Cyprus and precipitated its downfall. The junta was arrested and its main leader sentenced to death, the sentence being commuted to life imprisonment later on. Andrea Papandreou returned to eventually become Prime Minister. Then he revealed in October 1990 that it was in 1984 that he had learned of the Greek Gladio. The then Defense Minister was forced to acknowledge the existence of the Operation Sheepskin, which he claimed, had been dismantled in 1988. Nonetheless the Greek governments have been reluctant to expose the involvement of the secret army in terrorism.
Gladio subversion continued in Greece and many innocent people were killed. Cottrell has given a detailed description of many acts of terrorism in Greece that seemed to continue into the present century as well. Many of the murders were attributed to an organization November 17. However there were many who doubted the official narrative. Cottrell describes  the murder of the eminent Georgios Athansiadis, the “untiring scourge all political chicanery and outspoken editor of the Vradini – a newspaper with a long and unfettered reputation for acerbic comment on public matters . . .” In March 1983, while Athansiadis was sitting in his office a young man outside sent a slip mentioning that he wanted to see him and might have information of interest. Athansiadis called him into his office, the boy, according to the only eyewitness who was himself injured, whispered something in the editor’s ear. Athansiadis was disturbed by whatever was muttered in his ear and exclaimed “This cannot be”. And then bullet shots were heard – he was hit in the head and the shoulder. The killer simply walked away with ease and confidence and melted into the crowds outside going about their daily business. Cottrell points out that the “killer appeared arrogant in the knowledge that he was immune from detection.” The Athens police claimed to have found leaflets whereby the responsibility of the murder was calimed by a group calling itself the Anti-Military Struggle. Cottrell states that the anarchists were furious and denounced the police claim or ‘evidence’ as “blatant official forgeries.” Nothing came out of the investigations – they just went quiet and it appears everything has been forgotten.
In 1984 Andreas Papandreou was in power and his Justice Minister wanted to investigate the murder, in 1971, of a pretty British MI6 agent named Ann Chapman. Surprisingly, Andreas Papandreou was opposed to digging out the case. In defiance of his wishes the Justice Minister, a well known poet, Georgios Mangakis, handed over the files to a retired public prosecutor Georgios Thefanopoulos. But this was not to be – Thefanopoulus was murdered in broad daylight in his office. Apparently a young man on a motorcycle killed him by firing at point blank range through the window of Thefanopoulus’ car. Not only did police not find anything, the Justice Minister was also sacked. So had Andreas Papandreou succumbed to the powers that be or was he himself running his own secret operators? Cottrell writes :
“In Athens the cynical view quickly developed – based on the gloomy experience of the past – the agents of the state were loose on the streets with a license to kill, concealing their activities beneath the cloak of an imaginary anarchist threat to the nation. It was certainly curious how the frequency of attacks and threats to prominent citizens accelerated as the general elections approached together with solemn warnings from the governing party over the dangers by ‘anarchists and dissidents’ working against democracy.
The similarity in favored styles of execution and choice of victims was not lost upon those who were studying the outbreak of gun law in Athens. Neither was the strange inability of the police to get to grips with this supposed threat to democratic stability.”
A peaceful and democratic Greece underwent great pain and suffering and disturbance after World War II primarily because of the desire of the American and British agencies to control it for their own ends. Greece remains unsettled and the suffering in various garbs continues.
Captain Guerin-Serac originally worked for French military intelligence and carried out torture and killings in Algeria. When De Gaulle disbanded OAS (Organisation de l’Armee Secrete) and Algeria became independent in 1962, intelligence operatives like Guerin-Serac were in great danger and fled to other countries where they, backed by the CIA, offered their expertise in subversion and suppression to dictators. Guerin-Serac et al moved to Portugal. As agents of the Portuguese dictator Salazar the field of operation of these gladiators extended to Portuguese colonies, particularly in Africa. They were also involved in sabotage in Europe. Guerin-Serac set up an organization named Aginter Press in Portugal. The Italian judge Salvini, who investigated Galdio in Italy, described Aginter Press as a CIA front organization. It was revealed that Aginter Press agents had visited Rome between 1968 and 1969 and taught members of the right wing group Avanguardia Nazionale how to use explosives. Contacts between members of Ordo Nuovo and Aginter Press were also confirmed. A Portuguese organization had become involved in subversion, not just in Portuguese colonies, but in Western European countries as well. They could only do so because they were a CIA front and it were CIA et al that were interested in subversion on such a wide canvass. As Daniele Ganser, who wrote the first ever book on Gladio, states :
“The CIA and Salazar’s military secret service PIDE provided the finances for the terrorism of Captain Guerin-Serac. An Aginter Press document entitled ‘Our Political Activity’ and dated November 1969, was found in late 1974. It describes how a country can be targeted with secret warfare: ‘Our belief is that the first phase of political activity ought to be to create the conditions favoring the installation of chaos in all of the regime’s structures.’ As the most essential component of the strategy of violence inflicted had to be blamed on the Communists and traces had to be planted accordingly. ‘In our view the first move we should make is to destroy the structure of the democratic state under the cover of Communist and pro-Chinese activities. . . . Moreover, we have people who have infiltrated these groups and obviously we will have to tailor our actions to the ethos of the milieu – propaganda and action of a sort which will seem to have emanated from our Communist adversaries.’ Such false flag operations, the secret soldiers concluded, ‘will create a feeling of hostility towards those who threaten the peace of each and every nation’, i.e. the Communists.”
Aginter Press carried out assassinations in Portugal as well as in Africa in Portuguese colonies in an attempt to destroy liberation movements. Ganser points out that Portuguese opposition leader Humberto Delgado was assassinated by the Aginter Press assassins. They also assassinated Eduardo Mondlane in 1969, who headed a movement for the freedom of Mozambique. One of the most prominent revolutionary leaders Amilear Cabral was also killed by Aginter Press. Despite these brutalities all Portuguese colonies became independent.
As a CIA front Aginter Press made it their task to indulge in murderous activities wherever required in the entire world. Ganser writes :
“Therefore Aginter operatives, including American Jay Sablonsky, together with the CIA and US Green Berets Special Forces participated in the notorious Gautemalan counter-terror of 1968-1971, in which some 50,000 people, mostly civilian, were estimated to have been killed. Further Aginter operatives were present in Chile in 1973 and were involved when CIA ousted Socialist President Salvador Allende and replaced him with right wing dictator Augusto Pinochet. From its safe haven in Portugal’s right-wing dictatorship Aginter was able to dispatch its secret soldiers in numerous territories across the globe.”
When left wing officers of the Portuguese army ended the dictatorship in Portugal in 1974 (the Catholic politician Antonio de Oliviera Salazar, who promoted highly repressive policies, was the Prime Minister from 1936-1968!), Aginter Press operatives, led by Captain Guerin-Serac, fled the country and sought refuge in Madrid, where General Franco was still in power. The Aginter Press was apparently warned by insiders in Portugal that their offices will be raided and they left their office taking most of the documents with them. Nonetheless, in their hurry, they still left behind many incriminating documents proving that the Aginter Press was indeed a CIA front engaged in terrorism.
From Spain Aginter Press carried out sabotage in Europe. It could do so because it was a CIA front. It planted bombs in Algerian embassies in four different countries in 1975 – France, Italy, the UK and Germany. The bomb in front of the Algerian embassy in Frankfurt did not explode and was immediately subjected to minute analysis by the German authorities. And what did find? They found the C4 explosive that was in the exclusive use of the US forces. The American hand was therefore undoubtedly present in these bombing and as C4 could not be available to terrorists only and only from the US military and / or secret US agencies. These bombings were carried out to discredit an Algerian opposition group. In each of the explosions the signal SOA, which meant “Algerian Opposition”, was used. When General Franco died in November 1975, Aginter Press again became “homeless” but within no time they fled to South America finding a safe haven under the wing of General Pinochet of Chile.
According to Daniele Ganser the bloodiest Gladio operations took place in Turkey where CIA-trained men resorted to extreme violence. We have already described the ouster and murder of the elected and popular Prime Minister Adnan Menderes on American initiative. But violence in Turkey took many forms and continued the longest of all pre 9/11 Gladio sponsored violence anywhere. Turkey’s strategic location, its martial traditions, its aspiration to become powerful again, particularly under a pan-Turkic ideology which embraced many regions lying in the then Soviet Union and China, its intense nationalism and anti-Communism, made it an ideal tool for the CIA et al for use or abuse against left-wingers and Communists. The penetration of American civil and military agencies in the military and intelligence set up of Turkey was therefore very deep and very dangerous.
The key person in Turkey in setting up a Gladio type secret army was Colonel Alparsalan Turkes who was a contact person of the Nazis in Turkey during World War II. Col. Turkes was a believer in the racial superiority of the Turks and was known to quote Hitler in his speeches. He established contact with the CIA, and on CIA instruction, began setting up the secret stay-behind army around 1948. When Turkey joined NATO in 1952, Col. Turkes had already set up the Turkish Galdio. The secret organization that controlled the Turkish Gladio was head-quarterd in the CIA office in Ankara. The CIA office in Ankara carried the name American Aid Delegation – JUSMATT whereas the organization that controlled the Turkish Gladio was given the name Tactical Mobilization Group (Seferberlik Taktik Kurulu, STK). The STK was restructured in 1965 and renamed Special Warfare Department (Ozal Harp Dairesi OHD). When Gladio was exposed in 1990 OHD was renamed as Special Forces Command (Ozel Kuvevetler Komutanligi, OKK).
The Turkish Gladio was named Counter-Guerilla and was controlled by the OHD. Counter Guerilla had five units; a special section on Kurds, another on Cyprus, a group that specialized in interrogation techniques, an overall Coordination Group and an Administrative Section. The OHD (Special Warfare Department) was funded and trained entirely by the CIA. Members of this secret army also served the MIT (Milli Isthbaarat Testilati), the Turkish military secret service. After Adnan Menderes had been hanged and civilian government restored, Col. Turkes set up his National Action Party and the Grey Wolves (reminiscent of Gen. Gehlens werewolves) with CIA funds. The Grey Wolves were supposed to be the youth wing of the party formed by Col. Turkes. As Ganser states :
“The Grey Wolves, far from being a youth organization, were a brutal network of trained and armed men ready to use violence to further the cause of Pan-Turkism. ‘The creed of the Grey Wolves’ an article in Bozkurt, the official magazine of the organization, specified the ideology and the strategy of the movement in the following way: ‘Who are we? We are the members of the Grey Wolves (Bozkurtcu). What is our ideology? The Turkism of the Grey Wolf (Bozkurt). What is the creed of the Bozkurtcu? They believe, that the Turkish race and the Turkish nation are superior. What is the source of this superiority? The Turkish blood.’”
But the fact that they were funded by the CIA reduces them to a mere tool, but a very violent and dangerous tool. Quoting a Turkish writer Celik, Ganser states :
“ ‘The CIA has a group of at least 20 persons which work together with MIT and within the MIT are the highest organ’, Savasman explained. ‘They assure both the exchange of intelligence as well as cooperation in joint operations both within and outside Turkey.’ The cooperation, as he insisted, had not begun under his term in office: ‘Our secret service has been working together with the CIA ever since the 1950s. . . all technical equipment that we use has been made available by the CIA. A large part of our personnel has been trained by CIA abroad. The MIT headquarters were built by the CIA.’ Tellingly the CIA had also provided the Turks with the torture equipment: ‘The complete equipment of the interrogation chambers from the simplest to the most complex devices stems from the CIA. This I know because I directly worked with it.’ The MIT was entirely dependent on the CIA, above all because the CIA paid the bill as Savasman stressed: ‘The cost of operations within and outside Turkey are charged to the CIA budget.’”
With the above picture, nothing that the Counter-Guerilla and the MIT did was without CIA involvement. The CIA essentially controlled these organizations. The extent of CIA control and the fact that entire funding, even for the military secret service, the MIT, came from the CIA is something of which Turkey, with its proud traditions, cannot be proud. Sabahattin Savasam was the Vice Director of MIT. During his trial he confirmed that Hiram Abas, the most brutal and the most CIA-loved member of MIT , “took part in joint operations with the CIA in Lebanon, winning for himself a considerable salary and financial rewards, targeting left-wing youths in the Palestinian camps and receiving bounty for the results he achieved in actions.” The brutal Hiram Abas was eventually killed by left-wingers in retaliation for his brutality, the former CIA chief in Turkey Duane Clarridge came to Turkey to visit the grave of his ‘brother’ as he called Abas. Incidentally the name Hiram Abas is very close to the name Hiram Abif, “the principal character in the second section of the Master’s Degree in all rites and in all countries” in Freemasonry .
In order to generate tension, operators of the secret stay behind army in Turkey, the Counter-Guerilla, threw a bomb in a house in Greece which was revered by the Turks since it was the Mutafa Kemal Museum. Nobody in Turkey thought for one moment that it may have been an act meant to incite Turks against the Greeks. The Counter-Guerilla then “reacted” very violently and attacked Greek homes and businesses in Turkey, in Izmir and in Istanbul. The toll was horrific: 16 Greeks were killed, 32 were wounded and over 200 Greek women were raped. And the CIA leadership sat back enjoying the carnage its agents had wrought.
On May 1, 1977 the May Day massacre took place in Taksim Square in Turkey. Half a million men and women had gathered in Taksim Square that day. Near sunset snipers fired at the crowd generating complete chaos. The firing continued for 20 minutes leaving 38 dead and hundreds injured. The snipers fired from atop Hotel International. The said hotel was owned by the ITT, the telecom company with a chequered record. Three days before the incident all guests were ejected and no new ones were booked. A group of foreigners came to occupy the hotel. After the incident the foreigners left, the ownership of the hotel changed as did its name – it became Hotel Marmara. Hiram Abas was personally present on the scene when the May Day massacre took place. The CIA chief Duan Claridge would refer to Hiram Abas as “closer than my brother.” With the CIA control of Counter Guerilla and MIT, its involvement in Taksim Square massacre is self-evident.
Throughout the 1970s violence was carried out by Counter-Guerilla. Bulent Ecevit, who was to be four-time Prime Minister of Turkey, became aware of the secret Counter Guerilla and suspected it in the ongoing violence in Turkey. Ankara’s Deputy State Attorney Dogan Oez began looking at the connection between the fascist MHP party of Col. Turkes, the Counter-Guerilla and the Grey Wolves. He was able to find out their interconnection. He found that the secret state, the secret civil and military network was behind all violence that was taking place in Turkey and that the Counter Guerilla was controlled by the Special Warfare Department (OHD), that MIT was directly involved in the massacres and that MHP members and cadres were guiding MIT et al in this violence. He was therefore murdered on March 24, 1978. His murderer Cifcti admitted to having murdered him but told the judges that they could not touch him. Every time the civil court punished him it was overruled by the military courts. In the end Ciftci was set free. The civilian judges noted that they were compelled to release the criminal because they could not appeal against the decision of the highest military court.
Violence in Turkey was carried out by Counter-Guerilla and MIT operatives to pave the way for a military coup when needed. The violence in Turkey led to the second coup in 1971. Once civilian rule was restored violence again burst through. One right winger who was tried in court stated that the terrorism in the 1970s was carried out to bring the military in power. He stated: “The massacres were a provocation by the MIT. With provocations by the MIT and the CIA the ground was prepared for the September 12 coup.” As soon as General Kenan Everin assumed power (in 1980) all violence suddenly disappeared confirming what the person on trial had said. As Ganser has written :
“U.S. president Carter was at the opera when the coup in Turkey took place. When he heard about it he called Paul Henze, former Chief of the CIA station in Turkey who had left Ankara shortly before the coup to become a security adviser to President Carter in Washington on the Turkey desk of the CIA. On the phone Carter told Henze what the latter already knew: ‘Your people have just made a coup!’ The President was right. Paul Henze, the day after the coup, had triumphantly declared to his CIA colleagues in Washington: ‘Our boys have done it!’ Henze, according to Counter-Guerrila expert Celik, ‘was the chief architect of the September 12, 1980 coup.’ Years later Carter commented that ‘before the September 12 movement Turkey was in a critical situation in regard to its defenses. After the intervention in Afghanistan and the overthrow of the Iranian monarchy, the movement for the stabilization of Turkey came as a relief to us.’”
When many of the Grey Wolves, who had been subsequently arrested and put in jails, were approached by the MIT which promised to secure their release, provided they agreed to fight against Kurds i.e. to killing Kurds, some assented. They were released and thus began the new phase of massive violence in Turkey. In the fight against the Kurdish KPP more than 25000 people were killed on both sides and millions of Kurds were displaced. Turks were provided by modern military equipment in the course of this internal war. As Ganser remarks: “Until today, the involvement of NATO’s stay-behind armies in the massacres against the Kurds, ranges among the greatest secrets in Turkey and Washington.” Washington controlled both, the Turkish and Greek military as well their intelligence services and used them to subvert both countries and eliminate genuinely representative governments. The bloody and remorseless betrayal of Kurds by every party, particularly by the British and subsequently by the Americans, throughout the twentieth century right up to today, requires a detailed and separate treatment.
Journalists and editors, or anyone else, who sought to expose Turkish Gladio operations, the involvement of the secret stay behind army in drug trafficking and assassinations, and their deep links with the CIA, were themselves targeted. This was the same pattern that is found in Italy where journalists seeking to expose Gladio were targeted. One person who spoke out and suffered greatly was General Talat Turhan. Turhan had taken part in the 1960 coup against Adnan Menderes but appears to have understood what was really going on. He was dismissed from the army in 1964 after he had become a general. His dismissal, in all probability, must be due to his views on the secret state, the Turkish Gladio. He had, at some point in the 1970s, declared that Counter-Guerilla was “a secret unit of the NATO countries,” a statement to which few had then paid heed. He was picked up after the 1971 coup and tortured. In the year 1997, he stated :
“Then they told me that I was now ‘in the hands of a Counter-Guerrilla unit operating under the command of the Army outside the constitution and the laws.’ They told me that they ‘considered me as their prisoner of war and that I was sentenced to death.’ . . . In this villa I was tied up arms and feet chained to a bed for a month and tortured in a way a human being has difficulty to imagine. It was under these circumstances that I was first made familiar with the name Counter-Guerillas. . . The torturers, which called themselves Counter-Guerilla were largely made up of men of the Turkish secret service MIT and of Grey Wolves. Although these facts have been on the agenda of the parliament they have not been clarified to this day.”
On the face of it the torture of a fellow senior officer by the military intelligence seems to be mean and unlike the normal code of honor followed by the military. But the roots of this kind of mean behavior emanate from those who trained and controlled them – the CIA et al. The officers of Counter-Guerilla were trained at the notorious School of Americas (SOA) at Fort Benning in Georgia, U.S.A. SOA has churned out tens of thousands of torturers and spread them all over the globe. Perhaps the souls of those innocent men and women, who died at the hands of their SOA-trained torturers, the world over, might come back to haunt Fort Benning one day! The officers were trained to “pick [people] up, throw them on the back of a bus, and shoot them on the back of their head.” They were also taught how to “kill, stab, or strangle somebody silently.” In view of its profound and lasting contributions to the cause of “Democracy” and “Humanity”, SOA should be renamed. School of Brutality or School of Bestiality would be an appropriate name.
There was a deep connection between the CIA et al controlled Grey Wolves and members of Counter-Guerilla with the assassination attempt on Pope on May 13, 1981. The Afghan war was going on at that time. The man who investigated this link most deeply was the incredibly brave Turkish investigative reporter Ugur Mumcu, who, according to Cottrell, was “the man who knew too much.” He was killed in a car bomb explosion on January 24, 1993. But he had, before he died, exposed the deep links between the CIA, MIT, Grey Wolves, drug and arms trafficking, and their links to the attempt to assassinate Pope John Paul II, the first ever non Italian Pope since the mid-fourteenth century. As Cottrell wrote :
“Western citizens were socked with drugs by their own authorities, in collusion with organized crime. A huge international arms-for-narcotics go-round delivered top-of-the range military hardware in the Middle-East – siphoned from NATO stockpiles all over Europe – in exchange for heroin, which then flooded western markets.”
At both ends the result was destruction and loss of human life – through drugs in the West and through armed violence in the Middle East. Ugur Mumcu found out that Mehmet Ali Agca, the would assassin of the Pope, worked for Bekir Celenk who was engaged in arms smuggling. Williams states :
“He discovered that Celenk was engaged in the smuggling of arms and drugs through his fleet of cargo ships, which sailed under a Panamanian flag. Interviewing workers and crew members of the Vasoula, he obtained testimony that he carried 495 rocket launchers and 10,000 missiles from the Bulgarian port of Burgos to Istanbul, where it was received by leading figures from the Turkish underworld, including Abuzer Ugurlu. Mumcu working with the Turkish police, established Agca’s ties with the Grey Wolves and right-wing terrorists. He realized that the would be assassin had performed executions, including the murder of Ipekci, with Abdullah Catli and Oral Celik. What’s more he was able to identify Celik as the gunman who was running from St. Peter’s Square with pistol in hand.”
Cottrell quotes Mumcu :
“And the interesting thing is that the weapons smuggled in Bulgaria are weapons produced in NATO countries. Don’t the Bulgarian police know or see how all these arms from NATO nations clandestinely enter a Warsaw pact member nation? They know – and see.”
All these connections were to surface in different ways when those who clandestinely control U.S. clandestine policy decided to assassinate the Pope. Paul L. Williams has stated that on September 1, 1976, Kissinger established the Safari Club. The heads of intelligence agencies of U.S., France, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Morocco. Many CIA agents were also members of the Safari Club. William states :
“The primary function of the Club was the orchestration of terrorist and proto-terrorists by proxy groups throughout the world – from Renamo in Mozambique to Unita in Angola, and from Contras in Nicaragua to the mujahideen in Afghanistan. "
Professor Peter Dale Scott has put it in the following words :
“As former Saudi intelligence chief Prince Turki bin Faisal once told Georgetown University alumni, ‘In 1976, after the Watergate matters took place here, your intelligence community was literally tied up by Congress. It could not do anything. It could not send spies, it could not write reports, and it could not pay money. In order to compensate for that, a group of countries got together in the hope of fighting Communism and established what was called the Safari Club. The Safari Club included France, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Morocco, and Iran.’ Prince Turki’s candid remarks– ‘your intelligence community was literally tied up by Congress. …. In order to compensate for that, a group of countries got together … and established what was called the Safari Club.’ – made it clear that the Safari Club, operating at the level of the deep state, was expressly created to overcome restraints established by political decisions of the public state in Washington (decisions not only of Congress but also of President Carter).”
Pope Paul II belonged to Poland and had extensive contacts with the Polish Solidarity Movement, which was fighting against Communism politically. At the same time the Pope had engaged in back door diplomacy with Soviets in order to ease out the plight of tens of millions of Christians living behind what was then called the Iron Curtain. Simultaneously the Pope’s Vatican Bank received huge sums of money from the Americans, to be funneled to the Polish Solidarity movement in order to move Poland out of the Soviet orbit. Interestingly the Vatican Bank received $200 million for the purpose but, in reality, not more than $200,000 per annum were given to Solidarity! All these things were in the knowledge of the American intelligence. The attempt of the Pope to lift the Iron Curtain, to bail out, as it were, the Russians, did not go well with those who controlled American foreign policy. Cottrell writes :
“From 1979, a member of the Saudi inner court , Prince Turki al-Faisal, shared the helm. The Safari Club was crowded with ex-CIA people who for one reason or the other were fired or left for more exciting pastures. These included the legendary Theodore “the blond ghost” Shackley, who was present in Rome the day the Pope was shot. The only aim of the Safari Club was to discredit communism, by any means. Its functionaries were also accustomed to performing ‘contact jobs’ on behalf of the ‘real’ CIA. Its shadow in the underworld was now about to take its most spectacular operation: the assassination of Pope John Paul II.”
A crowd of approximately 20,000 pilgrims was present when the attempt to kill the Pope was made on May 13, 1982 in St. Peter’s Square, Rome. Cottrell writes :
“Photographs depict Agca holding a pistol with both hands, scarcely a meter or so from the Pope, who is standing and waving. He seemed to be aiming carefully, allowing for the crush around him, holding the pistol on the eye-line profile. Witnesses described the Turk as seemingly drugged and oddly unanimated. None apparently saw him, whip out the concealed weapon and take aim which is strange considering the closely packed crowd.”
When shots were fired the Pope received three bullets and bled so profusely that he survived by a hairline as it were. Several pilgrims were also injured. How many bullet shells were recovered from the scene is, rather surprisingly, not known. There was a diversionary explosion and one photograph by an onlooker showed another gunman running away with a pistol. Ugur Mumcu was to identify this man as Abdullah Catli. Catli, who was assassinated through a hideous car accident a decade later, was also the number two in the hierarchy of the CIA sponsored Grey Wolves. The diversionary explosion reported by those present, and the photograph showing another man with a gun, establish that Agca did not act alone. But a very quick cover up was put into effect as discussed below.
That there was a cover up is undeniable. According to Cottrell a variety of casings were found in the vicinity of the location that led magistrate Luciano Infelisi, known for his independence, to state, “there are documental proofs that Mehmet Ali Agca did not act alone.” He was taken off the case in no time! Why? The arrest warrant issued by Achille Galucci, the prosecutor general stated that the Pope was attacked by Agca “in collaboration with persons whose identity remains unknown.” Further the use of the light but not very accurate Belgian made Browning double action revolver forced Francesco Bruno, the arms specialist of the Italian secret police, who happened to be on duty that day, to say: “no serious assassin would have used the Browning pistol to mortally wound his victim.” He also stated that Agca did not target the thorax and also did not empty his magazine. Bruno concluded that “Agca was the fall-guy indoctrinated to believe he was supposed to fire warning shots, or at most create a diversion.” His conclusions were brushed aside . Why? Three experts gave an opinion that Agca did not act alone. Yet they were completely ignored and one was taken off the case. Does one smell a cover up? Certainly.
What followed was most astonishing. The trial was over in a mere three days! Williams writes about the SISMI (Italian Military Information and Security Service) chief General Giuseppe Santovito in the cover up. Santovito was a member of the secret society P2 that had been involved in false flag sabotage activities in Italy. He therefore knew more about the Gladio activities than any one else and was also in danger of being exposed. Williams states :
“Santovito soon emerged as the lead character in the assassination plot. He would handle all aspects of the investigation. He would provide cover for the co-conspirators. He would grant shelter to the assassins. As the head of the military intelligence and the commander of the Italian Gladio units, he was uniquely qualified for the role. By the time of his meeting with Shackley, the general was closely working with Stibam, ensuring safety for the massive arms for drugs operation that had been set up by the Sicilian Mafia, the Turkish babas, and the CIA.”
During the trial Mehmet Ali Agca first refused to accept the jurisdiction of the Italian court as the incident had taken place in Vatican city – Vatican was a sovereign state in its own right. When his demand for shifting the case to another venue was turned down he simply said the case was over – “I shall not answer any questions, I do not acknowledge this court. The trial has ended.” Apparently a nun testified that at the trial saying that Agca had shot the Pope and that she believed he had acted alone. There was no need to say that she believed he had acted alone but she did, probably on instruction, to keep the investigation away from a conspiracy. However the photograph taken by an American tourist, which clearly showed a man running away with a gun in his hand, undermined her claim and the court, in view of the photograph, and perhaps for other reasons, was compelled to state that “there existed no valid elements permitting to confirm or exclude” the possibility of another gun man. The court should have probed the matter more deeply. Further the presence in St. Peter’s Square at that time, of the firing Ted Shackley and Tom Clines, notorious ex CIA employees, should also have been probed by the court and the investigators. This was a highly significant presence. Where there were Shackley and Clines there was bound to murder and intrigue. Why were these two ex CIA employees there and what were they up to? They were certainly not there to pay homage to the Pope. In fact it may be highly illuminating to see what their fellow in crime and conspiracy for decades, James Jesus Angleton, had to say on his death bed about what all of them did. On his death bed James Jesus Angleton, the Jesuit head of Counter Intelligence in the CIA, gave an interview to Joseph Trento. This was two years before his death – Angleton died in 1987. Trento writes :
“I asked the dying man how it all went so wrong.
With no emotion in his voice, his hands trembling, Angleton replied: ‘Fundamentally the founding fathers of the U.S. intelligence were liars. The better you lied, the more you betrayed, the more likely you would be promoted. These people attracted and promoted each other. Outside of their duplicity, the only thing they had in common was a desire for absolute power. I did things that, in looking back on my life, I regret. But I was part of it and loved being in it . . . Allen Dulles, Richard Helms, Carmel Offie, and Frank Wisner were the grand masters. If you were in a room with them you were in a room full of people that you had to believe would deservedly end up in hell.’ Angleton slowly sipped his tea and then said, ‘I guess I will see them there soon.’”
Ted Shackley and Tom Clines perfectly fit the category that has been mentioned by Angleton. Clines was a suspect in the murder of Salvador Allende, the Chilean president. Both Shackley and Clines were running death squads in South America. Both had immense blood on their hands. So their presence at the scene on the day of the attempted assassination was most meaningful.
Although Agca had been sentenced to life imprisonment with one year in solitary confinement, he received very important visitors during this “solitary confinement.” It appears that the condition of solitary confinement was imposed in order that Agca may receive these highly important visitors and everyone else may be denied permission to meet him! Such visitors were bound to draw the attention of the prison inmates. Among those who visited him were General Giuseppe Santovito, Director General of SISMI (Italian Military Information and Security Service), former OSS agent and founder of the Pro Deo intelligence agency in Rome Fr. Felix Morlion, second in command at SISMI and simultaneously a CIA agent Francesco Pazienza, agents from the CIA, etc. What was so important that the Head of SISMI had to visit Agca personally? He could have sent a reliable officer from SISMI. The only reason that he visited Agca personally must be to ensure that his own secret involvement in the assassination was not blown and possibly to assess how firmly Agca was imbibing the new spin that he was being taught by Francesco Pazienza. The spin was to come out after about six months of confinement when his handlers were certain that Agca had thoroughly memorized what they had taught him. Pazienza apparently visited Agca very frequently and spent several months tutoring him about the involvement of Bulgarians in the assassination attempt. Agca was made to memorize every detail of the facial features of the Bulgarians whose names he would later take. He also learned about their habits and absorbed other information about them.
After having taught Agca the details about those whom he was directed to “reveal” as his Bulgarian “collaborators”, thus pointing a finger towards Soviet involvement in the assassination attempt, Agca began telling his prosecutors of the involvement of an accountant and military attaché in the Bulgarian embassy in Rome. This was in fall 1981. He also said that the assassination plans were drawn in the Rome apartment of a Bulgarian named Antonov, who was subsequently picked up, tortured and given psychotropic drugs. He never admitted to the plot and was released after three years in a condition in which he could not carry on a conversation. He was found dead in a desolate apartment in Sofia in 2007.
“Writers” like Michael Ledeen, Paul Henze and Claire Stirling began writing articles and books on the papal assassination attempt implicating the Bulgarians and the Soviet Union. According to Paul L. Williams, all these writers were on the payroll of the CIA! These spin-articles appeared in national periodicals as well in Readers Digest. This is how consent engineering works and the nations are misled into believing falsehoods. This also illustrates how book writing is used by the CIA in constructing falsified history. Such books are given great prominence by the mainstream media (another propaganda organ of the agencies and the Elite), are published by large publishers, and getting raving reviews. Importantly Paul Henze had told Ugur Mumcu that if he did not desist from pursuing his leads he may find “a nice surprise in store.” An overall view leaves no doubt that the CIA was behind the assassination attempt and, like all Gladio operations, an assassination was to be carried out by Gladio operators and blamed on the communists, in this case the Soviet Union.
Paul L. Williams writes :
“But the story was unraveling almost as soon as it was spun. Agca had been able to describe every mole and blemish on the Bulgarians he wished to implicate in the crime but remained unable to estimate their height! This proved telling since the two co-conspirators who worked in the Bulgarian Embassy in Rome resembled Mutt and Jeff from the comic strip. Their disparity in stature was almost comic. Another problem came from Agca’s description of Antonov’s apartment. The distinctive features he described including an ornate room divider between the living and dining rooms was not found in the Bulgarian’s living quarters. They were unique to the flat one floor below, which was occupied by Fr. Morlion. Agca also mentioned meeting Antonov’s wife and children during the planning sessions in April. But the Bulgarian’s family was not in Rome at that time. They had returned to Bulgaria.”
Despite all this, despite the photograph showing a man running with a gun in his hand, the Italian court ruled that Agca was solely responsible for the assassination attempt! The CIA had exerted great pressure to ensure that the courts did not give a ruling that would lead to its exposure. Agca subsequently met the Pope alone and, it is believed, told the Pope the real story. Whatever he told the Pope remained with the Pope till his dying day. The Pope forgave Agca. CIA was off the hook! Gladio was protected.
Cottrell writes :
“In a commentary published in 1995, the Turkish secret state investigator Serdar Celik described Turkish intelligence MIT as an integral branch of CIA in collaboration with Mossad and BND.‘. . . many operations of the Special Warfare Department [aka Counter-Guerilla, the Turkish Gladio arm] and Mossad are carried out in collaboration with MIT. A third of MIT’s functionaries are members of the armed forces and the rest are mostly retired military personnel.’ Note the axis leading from MIT and its Gladio units to the CIA and potentially Mossad - not excluding the long-standing collusion between Grey Wolves paramilitaries and Counter-Guerilla - on the route to St. Peters Square.”
An overall view of the various countries and cases described above should leave no doubt that Operation Gladio was illegally initiated by individuals embedded in the U.S. intelligence hierarchy. These individuals were closely tied to and serving the masonic international bankers. The same international bankers had imposed Communism upon Russia. Subversion was carried out by CIA et al controlled Gladio operators all over Europe, in South America, in Africa, and in Turkey in its first phase discussed in part I of this article. Thousands of people died or were maimed or scarred physically and mentally. Countless became drug addicts so the CIA et al could have off the books funds for subversion. For what? To counter Communism!
(to be continued)
REFERENCES AND ENDNOTES:
 Rt. Hon. Winston S. Churchill: Zionism versus Bolshevism A Struggle for the Soul of the Jewish People, Illustrated Sunday Herald, February 8, 1920, p 5.
Churchill wrote: “In violent opposition to all this sphere of Jewish effort rise the schemes of the International Jews. The adherents of this sinister confederacy are mostly men reared up among the unhappy populations of countries where Jews are persecuted on account of their race. Most, if not all, of them have forsaken the faith of their forefathers, and divorced from their minds all spiritual hopes of the next world. This movement among the Jews is not new. From the days of Spartacus-Weishaupt to those of Karl Marx, and down to Trotsky (Russia), Bela Kun (Hungary), Rosa Luxembourg (Germany), and Emma Goldman (United States), this world-wide conspiracy for the overthrow of civilization and for the reconstitution of society on the basis of arrested development, of envious malevolence, and impossible equality, has been steadily growing. It played, as a modern writer, Mrs. Webster, has so ably shown, a definitely recognizable part in the tragedy of the French Revolution. It has been the mainspring of every subversive movement during the Nineteenth Century; and now at last this band of extraordinary personalities from the underworld of the great cities of Europe and America have gripped the Russian people by the hair of their heads and have become practically the undisputed masters of that enormous empire.”
 Antony Sutton: Wall Street and the Bolshevik Revolution, first published 1974, most recently printed 2012, Clairview Publishers;
In his book Secrets of the Federal Reserve (first published 1951; 1991 edition published by Bridger House Publishing) Eustace Mullins mentions on p 85 that it is part of the Congressional record that when the Bolsheviks ran out of money, President Wilson sent them $100 million out of his Special Emergency War Fund!
 Andrew Carrington Hitchcock: The Synagogue of Satan, RiverCrest Publishing, 2010, p 98.
Also see Juri Lina: Architects of Deception, Referent Publishing 2004
 Gerry Docherty and Jim Macgregor: Hidden History - The Secret Origins of the First World War, Mainstream Publishers, 2013, 2014
 Guido G. Preparata: Conjuring Hitler – How Britain and America Made the Third Reich, Pluto Press 2005
Mujahid Kamran: International Bankers, World Wars I, II and Beyond; University of the Punjab Press and Publications Department, 2015.
 Carol White: The New Dark Ages Conspiracy – Britain’s Plot to Destroy Civilization, 1980, The New Benjamin Franklin House Publishing, 1980.
 Eustace C. Mullins: The World Order – A Study in the Hegemony of Parasitism, Ezra Pound Institute of Civilization, 1985
 Antony C. Sutton: Wall Street and the Rise of Hitler, first published 1976, reprinted by Clairview Books 2010
 Paul L. Williams: Operation Gladio – The Unholy Alliance between the Vatican, the CIA, and the Mafia, Prometheus Books 2015
 Ibid, p 62.
 Robert K. Wilcox: Target Patton The Plot to Assassinate General George S. Patton, 2nd edition Regenry History 2014, first edition 2008.
Also see: Mujahid Kamran: The Murder of General Patton, http://www.mujahidkamran.com/articles.php?id=33
 Paul L. Williams, op cit p 29.
 Ibid, chapter 5
 anomalies.net: Secret Warfare: Operation Gladio and NATO’s Stay-Behind Armies, Global Research, 3 September 2012, http://www.globalresearch.ca/secret-warfare-operation-gladio-and-natos-stay-behind-armies/5303061
 Paul. L Williams, op cit, p 68.
 Ibid, chapters 5 (p 61) and 7 (p 109).
 Ibid, p 61.
 Ibid, p 34-37.
 Ibid, p 47.
Ibid, chapter 2.
 Richard Cottrell: Gladio: NATO’s Dagger in the Heart of Europe – The Pentagon-Nazi-Mafia Axis, Progressive Press, 2012, p 13.
However the first book that comprehensively exposed Gladio was penned by Daniel Ganser: NATO’s Secret Armies, Routledge, 2005. This is a pioneering work.
 Eustace C. Mullins, op cit. (ref. 7 above)
 Richard Cottrell, op cit, pp 10,11.
 Paul L. Williams, op cit, p 96.
 Ibid, p 98.
 Ibid, p 103.
 Richard Cottrell, op cit, p 69.
 Ed Vulliamy: Secret Agents freemasons, fascists, . . . and a top-level campaign for political `destabilization’; Guardian, 5 December 1990.
 Peter Dale Scott: Systemic Destabilization in Recent American History: 9/11 and the JFK Assassination, and the Oklahoma City Bombing as a Strategy of Tension; http://www.japanfocus.org/-Peter_Dale-Scott/3835/article.html
 Paul L. Williams, op cit, p 110.
 Ibid, p 95.
 Richard Cottrell, op cit, p 13.
 Ibid, p 14.
 Paul L. Williams, op cit, p 68.
 Richard Cottrell, op cit, p 59.
 John P. Anderson, Tony Widing and Anders Leopold: Professional American Disinformation Agents Sabotaged the Investigation into the Murder of Swedish Prime Minister Olof Palme;
 Christopher Bollyn: The Strange Death of Anna Lindh; http://hugequestions.com/Eric/TFC/by_Bollyn_Lindh-murder.htm, 26 September 2003.
 Richard Cottrell, op cit, p 63.
 Moti Nissani: A Bird’s Eye View of Contrived Terror, Parts I-V, posted at Veterans Today; the quote is from Part II; http://www.veteranstoday.com/2013/06/22/the-gladio-conspiracy-part-ii-of-a-birds-eye-view-of-contrived-terror/
 Richard Cottrell, op cit, p 63.
 Ibid, p 322.
 Ibid, p 323
 Leo Gerber: Neo-Nazi Group Suspected in Munich Oktoberfest Bombing; https://news.google.com/newspapers?id=9gYgAAAAIBAJ&sjid=t2QFAAAAIBAJ&pg=1421,5561612&hl=en
 Dave Emory: Blockbuster Story: Germany Reopens Oktoberfest Bombing Probe, http://spitfirelist.com/news/blockbuster-story-germany-reopens-oktoberfest-bombing-probe/
 Dietmar Henning: Investigation into 1980 Munich Oktoberfest bombing reopened
 Jan Friedmann, Cony Neumann, Steve Robel and Steffen Winter 1980 Oktoberfest Bombing: Did Neo-Nazi Murderer Really Act Alone;
 Richard Cottrell, op cit, pp 308, 309.
 Oswald LeWinter: Bush-Cheney Cabal:Pedophilia, Arms Dealing, Murder; http://www.conspiracyplanet.com/channel.cfm?channelid=120&contentid=1337&page=1
 Richard Cottrell, op cit p 313.
 Daniel Ganser: NATO’s Secret Armies. Operation Gladio and Terrorism in Western Europe, Routledge, 2005, chapter 16, p 216.
 Quoted by Daniele Ganser in chapter 16, p 219. Original source: Peter Murtagh: The Rape of Greece. The King, the Colonels, and the Resistance; London Simon and Schuster, 1994, p 90.
 Ibid, chapter 16, p 222. Original sources cited by Ganser: Amnesty International, Torture in Greece: The First Torturer’s Trial in 1975, London 1977, Passim. Also William Blum, Killing Hope, pp 218-230 and Peter Murtagh: The Rape of Greece. The King, the Colonels, and the Resistance; London Simon and Schuster, 1994, pp 1-9.
 Richard Cottrell, op cit, p 171.
 Ibid, pp 172, 173.
 Daniele Ganser, op cit, chapter 9, p 118.
 Ibid, p 120.
 Ibid, p 228.
 Ibid, p 231.
 Ibid, p 232.
 Coils Masonic Encyclopedia, Macoy Publishing and Masonic Supply Company, Inc., p 306.
 Daniele Ganser, op cit, p 239.
 Ibid, p 230.
 Richard Cottrell, op cit, pp 273, 274.
 Paul L. Williams, op cit, p 214.
 Richard Cottrell, op cit, p 274.
 Paul L. Williams, op cit, 207.
 Peter Dale Scott, The American Deep State, Deep Events, and Off-the-Books Financing
The Asia-Pacific Journal, Vol. 12, Issue 14, No. 3 ;
 Richard Cottrell, op cit, p 267.
 Ibid, pp 265, 266.
 Ibid, pp 265, 266.
 Paul L. Williams, op cit, p 208.
 Quoted from Joseph Trento’s book Secret History of the CIA, by Steve Sewall in the book Fleshing Out Skull and Bones, Investigations into America’s Most Powerful Secret Society, by Antony Sutton et al Trineday LLC, 2003, p 56.
 Paul L. Williams, op cit, p 214.
 Richard Cottrell, op cit, p 291.